No one likes going to the dentist, but youshould all go every year. Because really, do you want to risk an infection in the biggesthole in your headé! Hey guys, Amy talking the joys of oral hygienewith you on DNews today! As many as 700 types of bacteria can livein our mouths, though most people only host between 34 and 72 varieties. Some of thesebacteria are innocuous, others known as probiotics actually help us digest food. There are evenbacterial strains that protect our teeth and gums. But there are some bad bacteria livingin your mouth as well. One is called streptococcus mutans. This bacteriafeeds on the sugars and starches you eat,
producing enameleroding acids as a byproduct,which can lead to tooth decay. Another bad bacteria is porphyromonas gingivalis, whichis linked to periodontitis, a serious and progressive disease that affects the softtissue and the alveolar bone that support the teeth causing tooth pain and in some casestooth loss. For most of us, our main dental issue willbe plaque, the film that builds up on your teeth and contains the bacteria that producesenameldestroying acids. Regular cleanings get rid of plaque, but if you don't cleanthe plaque from your teeth it hardens into tartar, which can get below your gums, causinginflammation and infection. That can open
a pathway into your bloodstream. Once thatbacteria is in your blood, it can get anywhere. The first place that bacteriafilled bloodcould go is your heart where there is some evidence that it can lead to atherosclerosis,or a hardening of the arteries caused by plaque, though this is a different kind of plaquethan you'd find on your teeth. The plaque in your arteries is made of cholesterol, fattysubstances, cellular waste products, calcium and a clotting agent called fibrin. It buildsup and thickens the walls of the arteries, constricting blood flow and increasing riskof a heart attack. Clogged or blocked arteries can also restrict blood flow to the brain,increasing risk of stroke.
A recent single study in Osaka, Japan,found that a quarter of stroke victims had a bacteria called cnmpositive S. mutans intheir saliva. The researchers acknowledged that it's a rare bacteria only 10 percentof people have, but it's still enough to reinforce the link between the oral bacteriumand stroke. And mouth bacteria can even follow a pathto your brain, increasing risk of dementia. A 2013 study from the University of CentralLancashire found a correlation between the bacteria commonly associated with gingivitisand an immune response that may kill neurons. This could ultimately change the brain ina way consistent with Alzheimer's disease.
And, if that weren't bad enough, letting bacteriaform colonies in your mouth can also lead to lung infections, but not through the bloodstreamâ€¦Instead you literally breathe oral microbes into your lungs, where it can infect and spread. And your oral health doesn't just impactyour body health, it can be a good indicator of your overall health. For example: gum diseasecan be a sign of diabetes, painful mucosal lesions are more common in people who areHIV positive, and tooth weakness or loss can be a sign of osteoporosis. So it should be said that this is a huge â€œmoreresearch is neededâ€� topic since most studies
have small sample sizes and need followupwork. And experts somewhat begrudgingly admit that we just don't know yet whether treatinggum disease can reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, or dementia. But, really, do you needmore motivation for keeping up with dental visits than maintaining good teeth for chewingéFloss! Brush! And above all: go to the dentist! And speaking of painful things in your mouth,confused about the difference between canker sores and cold soresé We were, too, so Traceexplains it in this tutorial right here. So how many of you always go in your yearlydental cleaningé I do! Let us know in the comments below and don't forget to subscribefor DNews every day of the week.
The Immune System Explained I Bacteria Infection
Narrator: Every second of your life youare under attack. Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi are trying to make youtheir home. So our bodies have developed a super complex little army with guards,soldiers, intelligence, weapons factories and communicators to protect you from uh,well, dying. For this tutorial, let's assume the immune system has twelve different jobs. For example, kill enemies, communicate etc. And it has 21 different cells and twoprotein forces. These cells have up to four different jobs. Let's assign them. Here are the interactions. Now let's make this understandable. First of all, let's addcolors to the jobs. Now let's illustrate
the cells. The central color represents the main job of the cell, while the surrounding ones represent secondary duties. Now the immune system looks like this. Now the interactions. Isn't this complexity just awesomeé For this tutorial we will only talk about these cells and ignore the rest. So what happens in the case of an infectioné Music It's a beautiful day when suddenly a wild rusty nail appears and you cut yourself. The first barrier of the immune system isbreached: your skin. Nearby bacteria sieze
on the opportunity and enter your wound.They start using up the body's resources and double their numbers about every 20 minutes. At first they fly under the radar but when a certain bacteria population isreached, they change their behavior and start to damage the body by changing the environment around them. The immune system has to stop them as fast as possible. First of all your guard cells, known as macrophages, intervene. They are huge cells that guard every border region of the body. Most of the time they alone cansuffocate an attack because they can devour up to 100 intruders each. They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane.
Then the enemy gets broken down by enzymesand is killed. On top of that, they cause inflammation by ordering the blood vesselsto release water into the battlefield so fighting becomes easier. You notice this as a very mild swelling. When the macrophages fight for too long, they call in heavy backup by releasing messenger proteins that communicate location and urgency. Neutrophiles leave their patrol routes in the blood and move to the battlefield. TheNeutrophiles fight so furiously that they kill healthy cells in the process. On top of that, they generate barriers that trap and kill the bacteria. They are indeed so deadly that they evolved to commit suicide
after five days to prevent them from causing too much damage. If this is not enough to stop the invasion, the brain of the immune system kicks in. The dendritic cell gets active. It reacts to the signals of the soldiers and starts collecting samples from the enemies. They rip them into piecesand present the parts on their outer layer. Now, the dendritic cell makes a crucial decision. Should they call for antivirus forces that eradicate infected body cells,or an army of bacteria killersé In this case, antibacteria forces are necessary.It then travels to the closest lymph node in about a day. Here billions of helper andKillerT cells are waiting to be activated.
When TCells are born they go through adifficult and complicated training process and only a quarter survives. The survivingcells are equipped with a specific setup. And the dendritic cell is on its way lookingfor a helper Tcell with a set up that's just right. It's looking for a helper Tcellthat combines the parts of the intruders which the dendritic cell has presented on its membrane. When it finally finds one, a chain reaction takes place. The helper Tcell is activated. It quickly duplicates thousands of times. Some become memory Tcells that stay in the lymph node and will make you practically immune to this enemy.Some travel to the field of battle to help