What potential disasters keep you up at nighté Meteor strikesé Super Volcanosé World War Threeé World war Zé Those are all pretty scary and we didn't even mention climate change but there's one other immediate terrifying, scientific problem that rises above the rest. Superbugs I'm not talking about giant spiders of Mirkwood or tracker jackers. I'm talking about antibiotic resistant bacteria. Which by the way are everywhere. Antibiotics are pretty incredible. Since the discovery of penicillin they have extended the average human life by about 10 years.
A good percentage of the people watching this right now are only alive today because at some point an antibiotic saved their life. But we're facing a little bit of a crisis. Antibiotics are starting to loose their effectiveness as bacteria continue to outsmart our technology. And I don't wanna make you too paranoid here, but the consequences could be big. Remember that little thing called the black death a pandemic that ravaged Europe and Asia in the 1300s, killing about, meh, 25 mln people. That wouldn't have happened if antibiotics were a thing back then,
but if our drugs stop working now, could it happen againé The US Centers for Disease Control estimates that 23,000 American died in 2012 from antibioticresistant bacteria. And the World Health Organization says that in 2010 about half a million people were infected with a resistant strain of tuberculosis, a third of whom died. A postantibiotic era could essentially mean the end of modern medicine and suddenly a simple operation, sinus infection or a scraped knee could once again have the potential to kill. Now, I'm not saying you should be worried about this. Actually, yeah, I'm saying you should be worried about this.
When Scottish physician Alexander Fleming got out of bed one September morning in 1928 he had no idea that he was about to change the world. Fleming had seen countless soldiers die from infected wounds and since the 1st World War ended, he'd been working hard to find better antibacterial agents. He was a good guy and a good scientist, but he was also a bit of a slob. So that morning he was straightening a stack of Petri dishes, where he'd been growing a staphylococcus bacteria, when he noticed mold in one of the dishes. Now, his lab was messy enough that that wasn't that weird,
but what caught his eye was that all around the mold the bacteria was dead. He later identified that mold as penicillium notatum. Years of experimentation followed and after enlisting the help of researchers Howard Florey and Ernst Chain the team figured out how to grow and use the fungus to treat bacterial infections. Mass production began during World War II and by DDay in 1944 all allied soldiers had penicillin, the world's first antibiotic. For their work Fleming, Florey and Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize.
And, for the next 50 years, or so, antibiotics were unbeatable, saving lives left and right. But lately they've struggled to perform as well as they used to. Before we talk about exactly what antibiotics are and how they work, you have to understand what they're up against. Bacteria!!!! Take a look around your room. Everything, your chair, your sandwich, your dog, your body inside and out it's all covered in millions and millions of different singlecelled bacteria. They can pretty much survive anywhere.
5 Most Painful Skin Diseases Ever
From gangrenous infections to lepers losinglimbs, here are the 5 most painful skin diseases ever. Today's topic was requested by Pablito's Way. If you have any other topics you'd like tolearn about, subscribe and let us know in the comments section below. Number 5: GangreneGangrene is a life threatening condition caused by either insufficient blood supply or byan infection of the skin. This lack of blood supply results in the debtof tissue cells and causes the skin to dry
up, become discolored, and eventually falloff. There are multiple types of gangrene and ifnot treated properly, are very deadly as each type is capable of damaging vital organs. The first type of gangrene is dry gangrene. This is often caused by a lack of blood supplyto a particular area of the body. Typically, it affects the hands and feet asa result of poor blood circulation. The tissue will often dry up, become discolored,then fall off! The next type is wet gangrene, which is theresult of an infected area.
Wet gangrene is usually associated with aninjury such as a burn or gunshot wound. It is generally more dangerous of the twobecause it can spread very quickly throughout the body. Symptoms include blisters with foul smellingdischarge, swelling, intense pain, dry skin, fevers, and if untreated, debt. There is also gas gangrene, which is far lesscommon than the other two and is often caused by the clostridium bacteria that affects themuscles. It can additionally cause a person to experienceseptic shock and lowered blood pressure.
Confusion, body rashes, pain, rapid heartbeat,and light headedness are all common symptoms of this type. Gangrene has been documented as far back as1194 AD, when Duke Leopold of Austria had his foot crushed by his horse. Once the foot was infected, his surgeons advisedhim to have it amputated. It took them three tries to do so successfully,however, and after he likely suffered more injuries, he contracted wet gangrene and eventuallydyed. The disease was not widespread until the 19thcentury during the American Civil War.
Fought between 1861 and 1865, the war wasa bloody affair, claiming the lives of 750,000 soldiers. By some estimates, gangrene was responsiblefor nearly 400,000 of those debts. Soldiers on both sides were subjected to poormedical facilities and practices. s mistakenly would use dirty hands andinstruments to operate on patients, which resulted in the fast spread of gangrene. During this time, it became known as â€œgangrene.â€� In most cases, soldiers dyed after contractingthe wet gangrene type.
A similar problem was presented in World WarI when soldiers began contracting â€œtrench foot.â€� World War I was known for its use of trenches,and where soldiers often spent long hours inside these trenches during battle. The long hours and even days spent in thetrenches' unsanitary conditions often resulted in the development of gangrene, which alsocaused sensory nerve damage, inflammation, and frostbite. Number 4: LeprosyLeprosy is a chronic infection caused by two