Narrator: Every second of your life youare under attack. Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi are trying to make youtheir home. So our bodies have developed a super complex little army with guards,soldiers, intelligence, weapons factories and communicators to protect you from uh,well, dying. For this tutorial, let's assume the immune system has twelve different jobs. For example, kill enemies, communicate etc. And it has 21 different cells and twoprotein forces. These cells have up to four different jobs. Let's assign them. Here are the interactions. Now let's make this understandable. First of all, let's addcolors to the jobs. Now let's illustrate
the cells. The central color represents the main job of the cell, while the surrounding ones represent secondary duties. Now the immune system looks like this. Now the interactions. Isn't this complexity just awesomeé For this tutorial we will only talk about these cells and ignore the rest. So what happens in the case of an infectioné Music It's a beautiful day when suddenly a wild rusty nail appears and you cut yourself. The first barrier of the immune system isbreached: your skin. Nearby bacteria sieze
on the opportunity and enter your wound.They start using up the body's resources and double their numbers about every 20 minutes. At first they fly under the radar but when a certain bacteria population isreached, they change their behavior and start to damage the body by changing the environment around them. The immune system has to stop them as fast as possible. First of all your guard cells, known as macrophages, intervene. They are huge cells that guard every border region of the body. Most of the time they alone cansuffocate an attack because they can devour up to 100 intruders each. They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane.
Then the enemy gets broken down by enzymesand is killed. On top of that, they cause inflammation by ordering the blood vesselsto release water into the battlefield so fighting becomes easier. You notice this as a very mild swelling. When the macrophages fight for too long, they call in heavy backup by releasing messenger proteins that communicate location and urgency. Neutrophiles leave their patrol routes in the blood and move to the battlefield. TheNeutrophiles fight so furiously that they kill healthy cells in the process. On top of that, they generate barriers that trap and kill the bacteria. They are indeed so deadly that they evolved to commit suicide
after five days to prevent them from causing too much damage. If this is not enough to stop the invasion, the brain of the immune system kicks in. The dendritic cell gets active. It reacts to the signals of the soldiers and starts collecting samples from the enemies. They rip them into piecesand present the parts on their outer layer. Now, the dendritic cell makes a crucial decision. Should they call for antivirus forces that eradicate infected body cells,or an army of bacteria killersé In this case, antibacteria forces are necessary.It then travels to the closest lymph node in about a day. Here billions of helper andKillerT cells are waiting to be activated.
When TCells are born they go through adifficult and complicated training process and only a quarter survives. The survivingcells are equipped with a specific setup. And the dendritic cell is on its way lookingfor a helper Tcell with a set up that's just right. It's looking for a helper Tcellthat combines the parts of the intruders which the dendritic cell has presented on its membrane. When it finally finds one, a chain reaction takes place. The helper Tcell is activated. It quickly duplicates thousands of times. Some become memory Tcells that stay in the lymph node and will make you practically immune to this enemy.Some travel to the field of battle to help
How to treat and Clean a Wound to Prevent Bacterial Infection
Prevent a skin infection by properly cleaningand bandaging a wound right away. Proper first aid treatment is essential tohelping prevent a bacterial infection, but you should not attempt to treat a severe fleshwound by yourself. If the wound is deep, wide, or bleeding alot, you should seek medical help immediately. Wash your hands before treating a wound. If you treat a wound with dirty hands, youwill increase the chances of a bacterial infection. Wash your hands with warm water and antibacterialsoap for 20 seconds and dry them well. Wear clean vinyl or latex gloves if they areavailable.
Avoid latex gloves if you have a latex allergy. Keep pressure on the wound until it stopsbleeding. If the bleeding is severe, seek medical attentionimmediately. Do not attempt to treat a severe wound byyourself. Go to an emergency room or call 9 1 1. Clean the wound with warm running water. Hold the wound under a gentle stream of runningwater to clean it. Do not use soap on the wound unless it appearsvisibly dirty.
If it does seem dirty, clean around the woundgently with a mild soap. Also, do not use hydrogen peroxide to cleana wound. Hydrogen peroxide can interfere with healing. If you notice any debris in the wound, youcan try to remove it with tweezers that have been sterilized with alcohol. If you do not feel comfortable doing that,you can go to a for treatment. Apply ointment. An antibiotic ointment, such as Neosporin,can help a wound heal faster and can help
keep infection at bay. Gently apply the ointment to the wounded areaafter cleaning. Bandage the wound. If the wound is a small scrape, leave it opento the air. If the wound is deeper, cover it with a sterilegauze. A nonstick bandage held in place with medicaltape is the best option for larger wounds, though large bandaids may also work. Be sure that you do not put the adhesive areaof a bandage over a wound, as it may reopen
the wound when you remove it. Change the gauze once a day if it is dirty. A good time to change the gauze is when youtake a shower. Watch for signs of infection. If the wound is red, swollen, draining pus,streaking red away from the wound, or just looking worse, call your .