Sinusitis, also known as sinus infection orrhinosinusitis, is a very common condition where the paranasal sinuses are inflamed,causing congested nose, headache and facial pain.Paranasal sinuses are air cavities in the bones of the skull. There are four pairs ofsinuses located on either side of the head. They are the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid,and sphenoid sinuses. The sinuses are lined with respiratory epitheliumproducing mucus. The mucus drains into the nasal cavity through small openings. Impairedsinus drainage has been associated with inflammation of sinuses. When a sinus is blocked, fluidbuilds up, making it a favorable environment
for bacteria or viruses grow and cause infection.A typical sinusitis symptom is described as a dull pain or constant pressure commonlylocalized to the affected sinus. The pain may worsen when the person bends over or whilelying down. Symptoms often start on one side of the head and spread to the other side.Acute sinusitis may be also be accompanied by thick nasal discharge of yellow greenishcolor. Sinusitis may have different causes. Theseinclude: Allergy: allergens such as pollen, pet danderâ€¦may trigger inflammatory response of the mucosa of the nose and sinuses, resulting in excessmucus production, nasal congestion, sneezing
and itching. Infection: infection usually occurs as a complication of a common cold. Impaired sinusdrainage due to inflammation of nasal mucosa during a cold often leads to infection ofthe sinus itself. Coldlike symptoms plus headache, facial pain or pressure are commoncomplaints. Other conditions that cause blockage ofsinus drainage. These include: structural abnormalities such as deviated nasal septum;formation of nasal polyps. Treatments vary depending on the cause ofsinusitis: For allergy: intranasal corticosteroidsare commonly used.
For viral infection: symptom relief medicationssuch as nasal spray for irrigation and decongestion; other conservative treatment for common coldsuch as rest and drinking plenty of fluid. For bacterial infection: antibiotics maybe prescribed. For recurrent or chronic sinusitis due tostructural abnormalities or nasal polyps, nasal surgery may be recommended to clearup the drainage canal.
Do I Have Laryngitis or Bronchitis
Do I have laryngitis or bronchitisé The main symptoms of bronchitis are tightnessin the chest, shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing up mucus that may be multicoloredand a cough. I have a sore throat, coughing and feel likeI'm losing my voice. If you have a cold or flu, the waterfall ofsnot down the back of your throat can interfere with your voice, though it is not technicallylaryngitis. So what exactly is bronchitisé Bronchitis is a bacterial infection of themucus in your lungs. Laryngitis is in the
larynx. I'm forgetting where that is. Laryngitis is described as an infection orinflammation of the voice box. It makes the vocal cords swell up and changes your voice. I've definitely had my voice go hoarse. The main symptoms of laryngitis is a hoarsevoice, but it may accompany a sore throat, coughing or trouble swallowing. But you canbe pretty sure it is laryngitis if you cannot talk, or it gets worse after yelling.
So much for use it or lose it. Laryngitis caused by straining the voice youcan treat by not straining yourself. You don't have my kids. Time outs can control the kids while you letyour throat heal. Then talk as little as possible. Fine, I'll keep it at a whisper. Whispering actually strains the voice boxas bad as talking. Aside from finishing this conversation, whatcan I do to treat ité If you have bacterial laryngitis, the standardsolution is antibiotics. If it is viral,
the might have a prescription or sayrest and wait. What about bronchitisé Bronchitis often requires antibiotics, butit sometimes clears up on its own with rest, lots of fluids and fever reducers. But withlaryngitis, you won't have a high fever, though the bacteria in your lungs can certainlyinfect the voice box. Oh wonderful, I could end up with both. Any hoarseness that lasts after the cold clearsup is a separate infection, potentially laryngitis lasting after the bronchitis or even startingwhen you started coughing the phlegm as you
cleared out the bronchitis. How can I tell if I have one or the otheré Bronchitis will give you a fever, violentcoughing, extreme fatigue. Laryngitis may make you cough but the biggest inconvenienceis breaking the no texting at dinner rule so the kids know what you want. Whereas with bronchitis, I have to yell fromthe bed, though I'll be straining to talk to them between coughs with either one.
Immune System part 1 Crash Course AP 45
You may not know it, but your body is engagedin a neverending battle. You are literally covered in staph and strepand e coli, and all sorts of dubious characters that are intent on using you, and your body'smany resources, to feed themselves, find shelter, and reproduce as much as they want. And, hey, we all gotta make a living. Butit is not your job to give these guys a free lunch. So your body has developed a threepart policytoward these shady customers, and its enforcement is handled by your immune system. The immune system is different from all theother systems we've talked about this year
in that it's not a specific, tissueorgansystemkind of system. Instead, it involves a whole bunch ofdifferent tissue groups, organ systems, and specializedbutwidelydistributed defense cells. Together, this league of extraordinary substancesjoins forces to perform all of the defense functions your body depends on to keep youalive in an incredibly germy world. And the first line of defense in this neverending battleéThat's your innate, or nonspecific, defense system. Like your average frontline soldier, it'sprepared to immediately engage with anyone suspicious, and it mostly includes stuff wewere born with, like the external barricades
of your skin and mucous membranes, and internaldefenses like phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins, and other attack cells. But some enemies must be fought with specialforces. And here, your body can deploy your adaptive, or specific defense system, whichis more like your Seal Team Six. It takes more time to call in, but it'sspecially designed to go after specific targets. And it keeps files on those bad guys so itknows how to handle them next time around. But today we're going to focus on your innatesystem, and look at how it uses an arsenal of physical and chemical barriers, killercells, and even fever, to keep you healthy.
Proving that sometimes, the symptoms we associatewith illness are actually the signs that we're healing. Just because something is simple doesn'tmean that it can't be elegant. I mean, your body is capable of some incredibly sophisticated things, including defending itself from infection. But occasionally there's something to besaid for brute force. And a lot of your innate immune system'sfunctions aren't exactly subtle. For example, your body's very first line of defense isa simple physical barrier. And it works! Like a wall around a fortress, your skin doesa fantastic job of keeping out all manner
of malevolent microorganisms. As long as that tough, keratinized epithelialmembrane doesn't get torn open or busted up too much, you could probably, like, makesnowballs out of raw sewage and still be alright. Although.no. No. Your many mucous membranes also provide ahandy physical barrier. You'll remember that they line any cavity that opens up intothe germy outside world, including the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Not only do your skin and mucosasupply simple physical protection,
they also pack some serious chemical weaponry. Eat some questionable leftovers for lunchéDon't worry, your stomach is literally filled with acid, so you probably are covered. Walk facefirst into your coworker's nastysneeze cloudé No worries, your nasal passages can whip up a tissuebox worth of sticky mucusto help trap viruses before they enter your lungs. You've also got bacteriafighting enzymesin your saliva and lacrimal eye fluid, and peptides called defensins in your skin andmembranes that help keep bacteria and fungi from setting up shop around inflamed or scrapedskin.