Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
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What is gonorrhea
Of the manysexually transmitted infections, or STIs, gonorrhea isthe second most common. The most common STI is chlamydia. Chlamydia, and we'll talkmore about chlamydia later. Right now, let's focuson gonorrhea and why these two happen together. These two diseases often occur together for two reasons.
First, they have similar risk factors, which include things like having multiple sexual partners andor having frequent unprotected sex. The other reason is thatinfection with one of these bugs makes your body susceptibleto a second infection by dampening the immune system. So I promise we'll go into more detail
about chlamydia later, butfor now let's talk more about gonorrhea. It's caused by a bug referredto as neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the reason why we callgonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection is because itundergoes this process referred to as transmission where it moves from one person to another by several mechanisms.
Most commonly, gonorrhea willbe transmitted through sex, which can include oral sex,vaginal sex, or even anal sex. Another important mechanismof transmission includes childbirth and we'll talk moreabout the outcomes of that in a minute, so theseare the main ways that gonorrhea can be transmitted. Let's move this off to theside and let's focus instead on my poor friend overhere who's going to have
all the different signs andsymptoms a person can get with gonorrhea. Now because we said themain way gonorrhea spreads from one person to the other is by sex, let's start by focusingon signs and symptoms at our sexual organs. So here you can see on theleft I have female genitalia drawn out and on the right side,
we have male genitalia drawn here. If we were to imagineour gonorrhea infection, so I'll use this as sortof a way to mimic gonorrhea as it spreads, perhapsyou can have a female infecting a male with gonorrhea and so, because the penis is used during sex, that can actually seedor spread up the urethra. This yellow line here,that is your urethra.