Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
Discharge During Pregnancy When to Worry Parents
When you're pregnant, having increased dischargeis very, very common. It's called leukorrhea of pregnancy, and it's caused by hormonalchanges that affect the uterus, the cervix, the vagina. And for the most part, it's nothingto worry about. If you are having symptoms of abnormal discharge, which can include itching,or burning, or discoloration, or odor, you should talk to your . And typically,we'll have you come into the office, we'll do an exam. You'll be checked for infections,which can include yeast vaginitis or bacterial vaginosis, both of which are not lifethreatening,both of which are easily treatable with prescription creams. A lot of the books will lead you tothink that losing your mucus plug means that
labor is gonna start any moment. But in reality,you can lose your mucus plug weeks before going into labor. I think it's important todifferentiating the third trimester discharge from having your water break. It's a commonquestion that we get. Patients aren't sure if their water's broken. And so, the firstquestion we ask them is to see if they can discern whether it's watery liquid, or it'smore sticky and mucousy liquid that's coming out. If it's more watery, then it could bethat the amniotic fluid bag has ruptured in which case your definitely needsto know about that. Not every patient will know for sure what it is, and we get lotsof calls. And we encourage patients to come
and so we can check.
The puzzle of motivation Dan Pink
I need to make a confessionat the outset here. A little over 20 years ago,I did something that I regret, something that I'm notparticularly proud of. Something that, in many ways,I wish no one would ever know, but here I feel kind of obliged to reveal. (Laughter) In the late 1980s, in a moment of youthful indiscretion,
I went to law school. (Laughter) In America, law is a professional degree: after your university degree,you go on to law school. When I got to law school, I didn't do very well. To put it mildly, I didn't do very well. I, in fact, graduated in the partof my law school class
that made the top 90% possible. (Laughter) Thank you. I never practiced law a day in my life; I pretty much wasn't allowed to. (Laughter) But today, against my better judgment, against the advice of my own wife,
I want to try to dust offsome of those legal skills what's left of those legal skills. I don't want to tell you a story. I want to make a case. I want to make a hardheaded, evidencebased, dare I say lawyerly case, for rethinking how we run our businesses.
So, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, take a look at this. This is called the candle problem. Some of you might know it. It's created in 1945 by a psychologist named Karl Duncker. He created this experiment that is used in many other experimentsin behavioral science.
And here's how it works.Suppose I'm the experimenter. I bring you into a room. I give you a candle,some thumbtacks and some matches. And I say to you, quot;Your job is to attachthe candle to the wall so the wax doesn't drip onto the table.quot; Now what would you doé Many people begin tryingto thumbtack the candle to the wall.