Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
5 Myths About STIsSTDs You Probably Believe
Teacher: It is important to disclose STI statusto all sexual partners. Student: â€œWell I don't have any STIs,but if I did I wouldn't have any trouble telling my partners about it.â€� Voiceover: Well maybe. But it's possibleneither of those things are true. Let's talk about STIs. intro music Hi everyone! My name is Sarah, and welcomeback to Everyday Consent. Talking about Sexually Transmitted Infectionswith your partners, also known as STIs or
STDs, is an important part of informed consent.Knowing your partner's STI status helps you to know the health risks involved in havingsex with them and make informed decisions about how you want to protect your health. But if a partner did tell you they had anSTI, how well would you really understand what that meant for you and your relationshipéThere is a lot of stigma and misinformation out there about STIs. Myths about STIs areso common that even if you did have decent sexual education, you might still believesome of them yourself. Being misinformed in this way can make having a meaningful conversationwith your partner about STI risks more difficult
and scary than it needs to be. To help makethose conversations a little easier, today I want to dispel my top Five Common MythsAbout STIs. Myth 1: STIs are really rare, or only happento irresponsible people or people who don't use condoms In truth, STIs are very common. In the US,1 in 4 teens will contract an STI each year. And fully half of all sexuallyactive peoplein the US will contract an STI by the time they turn 25. The Center for Disease Controlreports that most sexuallyactive people will get at least one type of HPV in their lives,and several strains of that virus can cause
Genital Warts or Cervical Cancer. The WorldHealth Organization estimates that twothirds of the entire world population under the ageof 50 has HSV1, which is one of two strains of the virus that causes both oral and genitalHerpes. While Safer Sex methods such as condoms canprevent or greatly reduce the chance of spreading many STIs, some STIs such as HPV and Herpesare spread through skintoskin contact. This means that condoms cannot fully protect againsttransmission of these STIs during sex. And it also means that these STIs can be spreadthrough completely nonsexual contact, such as your Great Aunt Sally giving you a kisson the cheek when she has a cold sore.
So STIs are super common and even if someoneis really â€œresponsibleâ€� and uses condoms every time they have sex, or doesn't havesex at all, they can still contract an STI. Myth 2: Everyone that has an STI knows thatthey have an STI Haha, nope! It is extremely common to havean STI and not know it. First of all someone might not be experiencing any symptoms. Accordingto the World Health Organization, the majority of STIs have no symptoms or only mild symptomsthat may not be recognized as an STI. That's why regular testing for STIs is recommendedregardless of whether you're actually showing symptoms.
But okay, at this point you're probablythinking, â€œOkay Sarah, I know, you gotta get tested. But I've been tested recentlyand they all came back negative. So I know I don't have anything.â€� Well, the thing is, even if you marched toyour 's office, head held high, and proclaimed â€œI would like a full STI panel,please! Give me everything you've got!â€� most places will actually only test you forthings that they think you are at risk for based on things like age, gender, ethnicity,location,and sexual history. So if, for example, you are in a population determined to be atvery low risk for Syphilis, many places will
Vagina Warning Signs that Your Vagina is Unhealthy
Warning Signs that Your Vagina is Unhealthy1. Itching Burning A constant itching and burning sensation indicatesthe onset of a number of vaginal infections. When the harmful bacteria outnumber the goodbacteria in the vagina, the imbalance manifests itself through the physical symptom of itchingand burning. A certain amount of yeast is essential toward off harmful bacteria in the vaginal area. However, an overproduction of yeast can resultin a yeast infection, causing symptoms that include itching and burning.
An inflammatory sensation and itching withoutany foul odor emanating from the vagina are signs of a yeast infection, according to a2004 study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association. Itching can also be a reaction to chemicalsor ingredients in soaps, creams, contraceptive foams and prepackaged douching mixtures. These mixtures can alter the bacterial balanceand acidity of the vagina that protect it against infections. 2.
Smelly Discharge Itï¿½s unlikely for your vagina to smell likea bed of roses, but if you notice a recurrent strong odor, one that even transfers to yourundergarments, it might be a sign of an infection. An excess of harmful bacteria causes bacterialvaginosis. A foulsmelling vaginal discharge is oftenthe first and most common symptom of this infection. A ï¿½fishy odorï¿½ is one of the major symptomsof bacterial vaginosis, according to a 2011 study published in the International Journalof Womenï¿½s Health.
This discharge may especially occur afterintercourse. Pregnant women who contract bacterial vaginosisrun a risk of delivering their baby prematurely, according to the Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. It also increases the risk of contractingsexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, and may sometimes lead to pelvic inflammatorydisease. Therefore, seek medical attention right awayif you notice a vaginal odor. 3. Discoloration Excessive Discharge
Vaginal discharge is the bodyï¿½s naturalmechanism to keep the vagina lubricated and flush out harmful bacteria. Normal vaginal discharge ï¿½ clear or whiteand does not give off a bad odor. A brown or red discharge that occurs rightafter a menstrual cycle is usually not a matter of concern. However, if you experience brown or red dischargeon normal days between periods, seek medical attention as it could be indicative of cervicalcancer. If it occurs during early pregnancy, it couldsignify a miscarriage.
A green or yellow, smelly and frothlike dischargeis not normal and may be a sign of trichomoniasis, an STD. A watery white, gray or yellow discharge mightbe a symptom of bacterial vaginosis. While the amount of discharge differs fromwoman to woman, recurrent and excessive discharge may also indicate bacterial vaginosis. Seek medical attention right away if you noticea discoloration in your vaginal discharge. 4. Abnormal Bleeding