Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
The EFC at UNCs Rates Dashboard Tutorial 6 of 9
bjbj Scripts for the Online Tutorial Tutorialsfor the North Carolina Water and Wastewater Rates Dashboard Tutorial 5: The Rates Comparisontab Understanding the Affordability and Cost Recovery Gauges In the last tutorial, I ve explainedthe Bill Comparison and the Conservation Signal gauges. Let s look at the Affordability gaugenext. Again, we are currently looking at how much the Example Utility is charging for waterand wastewater combined for 5,000 gallonsmonth. The monthly bill comes out to be $62.25. Isthat affordable é It s difficult to give a straight answer to this. There is no universallyaccepted definition of affordability, and this gauge should not be used as the singleindicator of affordability of rates. However,
the gauge does show the most commonly usedindicator of affordability: the percent MHI . It is calculating what a year s worth of$62.25 monthly bills is compared to the median household income of the community being servedby this utility. If you take every household in your service community and line them upbased on their annual household income, and then find the middle household, their incomeequates to the median household income . Basically it means that half of the communitys households make less than (or more than) this amount. The US Census Bureau collectsthis information. We ve already identified and linked your community s median householdincome, which is inflated to 2008 dollars
in this dashboard. In the Example Utility,which is completely made up, we said that the MHI is a little over $38,000. So, 12 monthsof $62.25 monthly bills amounts to 1.96% of the MHI. This means that half of the householdswould spend up to (or more than) 1.96% of their annual income on water and wastewaterbills if they used 5,000 gallonsmonth for 12 months. So, is this affordableé Any answerto that question is subjective. We ve color coded the gauge based on a combination offactors: what funding agencies evaluate, what EPA and other utilities generally use, etc.Here, we show that up to 1% MHI for water and 1% MHI for wastewater (2% for combined)is relatively affordable or at least it is
more affordable than 1.5% MHI for water orwastewater (3% combined). But then again, this is subjective, and many households haveincome levels much lower than the MHI, so the affordability scenario looks very differentto them. Utilities need to use their best judgment in assessing the affordability oftheir rates and not rely solely on a single indicator. Nonetheless, since funding agenciesuse the % MHI number in their considerations, we provide this number for you on the dashboard.The final gauge is one of the most important! It measures the cost recovery of the utilityin the previous year. It equals operating revenues (how much the utility collected fromall of their customers) divided by operating
expenses, which in North Carolina includedepreciation, for one fiscal year. A ratio of 1.0 means that the utility brought in justenough revenue to cover its expenses in that year. Anything below 1.0 means that the utilitydid not recover enough revenue to pay for operating expenses including depreciation(a measure of capital need). The ratio should really be higher than 1.0 to accommodate futurecapital needs, and bond agencies consider this operating ratio when setting their ratingsfor a utility. As a result, we see a ratio of 1.2 or higher as a possible sign of financialhealth. For the selected utility, the operating ratio is 1.10, which is good but should probablyimprove in order to plan for future capital
cost increases. The good news is that theutility has more revenues than expenses. Government owned utilities are run as nonprofits, sothis is NOT a measure of profit . The utility uses this extra cash to pay for needed infrastructurereplacements and rehabilitation in order to keep the system running, and anything extrameans that the utility is less likely to raise rates in the near future. In the next tutorial,we ll look at all four gauges together to get the big picture. I ll also explain theslider on the bottom. PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT }r}f}f}^}^V}N gd v gdP% gd v JFIF 1Exif AdobePhotoshop CS2 Windows 2010:04:26 13:37:47 JFIF Adobe_CM Adobe b34r 7GWgw AQaqquot; dEU6te'7GWgw '$Ue k=c} vUs 84ae9 mqh, 7T94 IN~G