Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
Do I Have Chlamydia Symptoms of Chlamydia
Hi, my name is PRESENTER NAME. I'm PRESENTERROLE. Welcome to quot;Signs and Symptoms of Chlamydia.quot; Chlamydia is a common sexually transmittedinfection. Chlamydia usually has no symptoms, can leave a woman unable to havechildren, and can be passed from the mother to child during vaginal childbirth.Having an active sexually transmitted infection such as chlamydia increases the risk you willget HIV or give it to someone else. HIV is incurable and can be fatal. Fortunately, chlamydiacan be diagnosed with a test and cured with antibiotics.You can have chlamydia without knowing it. If you think you may have been exposed toor infected with any sexually transmitted
infection, see a and get tested whetheror not you have any symptoms. All pregnant womenshould be checked for chlamydia, syphilis, HIV, and other sexually transmittedinfections. How Is Chlamydia TransmittedéChlamydia is transmitted by vaginal, oral or anal sexual contact. Chlamydia can alsobe transmitted from mother to child during vaginaldelivery. Signs and Symptoms of ChlamydiaChlamydia usually has no symptoms. If you have symptoms, they usually appear one tothree weeks after infection.
When a woman has a chlamydia infection inher vagina, symptoms may include: * abnormal vaginal discharge* quot;a burning sensation when urinatingquot; * quot;lower abdominal painquot;* quot;low back painquot; * quot;nauseaquot;* quot;feverquot; * quot;pain duringquot; sex* quot;bleeding between menstrual periodsquot; When a man has a chlamydia infection, hissymptoms may include: * abnormal discharge from his penis* quot;burning sensation when urinatingquot; * quot;burning and itching around the openingof the penisquot;
* rarely, quot;pain and swelling in the testiclesquot;If the penis is put into a person's anus during intercourse, that person may get achlamydia quot;infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, fluid discharge, orbleeding.quot; Men or women who perform oral sex on an infectedpartner may get a chlamydia infection in their throat.Effects of Untreated Chlamydia in Women When not treated, chlamydia can cause a womanto develop: * pelvic inflammatory disease* quot;permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissuesquot;* quot;chronic pelvic painquot;
* quot;infertilityquot; (inability to have a baby)* ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus) which can be fatalIf a woman is infected multiple times with chlamydia, her risk of serious complications,including infertility (not being able to have a baby), increases.Chlamydia in Pregnant Women If you are a woman who is pregnant or whomay become pregnant, it is important that you be tested for chlamydia. The United StatesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all pregnant womenbe tested for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections includingHIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis B and that
pregnant women who are at risk for gonorrheaor live where it is common be tested for gonorrhea. The World Health Organization recommendsthat all pregnant women be tested for HIV and syphilis and checked forsymptoms of other sexually transmitted infections.If you are pregnant, have chlamydia, and don't get treated, your baby may have problemsincluding: * premature delivery* infections of the eyes and lungs * pneumoniaBy getting tested for chlamydia and treated if you need it, you can protect your ownhealth and your baby's health too. So if you
What You Need to Know About Chlamydia
gt;gt; Rachel Gorwitz: Hello,I am Rachel Gorwitz, Medical Officer in the Divisionof STD Prevention at the Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. Although most Chlamydia casesreported are among teens and young adults, any sexuallyactive person can get this sexually transmitteddisease or STD. In fact, CDC estimates thereare nearly 3 million new cases of Chlamydia each year.
People get Chlamydia byhaving vaginal, anal, or oral sex withsomeone who has this STD. Most people withChlamydia have no symptoms which is why the infectionoften goes undiagnosed. If symptoms occur, theymay not appear until weeks after having sex withsomeone who is infected. Women with Chlamydia may havean abnormal vaginal discharge or burning sensationwhen urinating.
Men with Chlamydia may havea discharge from the penis or a burning sensationwhen urinating. Even when a chlamydial infectiondoes not cause symptoms, if left untreated it can go on to cause pelvic inflammatorydisease, chronic pelvic pain or make it difficultor impossible for a woman to get pregnant. CDC recommends thatsexually active women
under age 26 be testedfor Chlamydia every year. It is important forboth men and women to discuss their sexualhistory with their physician to determine if they shouldbe tested for Chlamydia. Chlamydia can be cured easilywith antibiotics prescribed by a healthcare provider. Even after treatment thougha person can be reinfected if they have sex withsomeone who has Chlamydia.
So it's important that sexpartners are also treated. Learn more about Chlamydia andother STDs at cdc.govSTD.