music It's a typical day. A patient has noticedsome itching, or maybe an unpleasant vaginal odor. During her exam, the ian willcheck vaginal pH, examine any discharge that's present, and collect a sample. Then, it'son to the microscope. music This is where you'll gather more specificinformationabout what's causing those vaginal symptoms. We'll show you how to prepare andexamine vaginal wet preps and how to do a whiff test. The results, combined with the patient's vaginal pH test, will aid in the diagnosis.
Under the microscope, you'll be looking for trichomonads, yeast, and the clue cells associated with bacterial vaginosis. We'll show you how to recognize them. music First, the microscope itself: This is a compoundlight microscope. It has several objective lenses on a rotating mount. For our purpose,one of these has to be a 10x low power objective, and one has to be a 40x for greater magnification.This flat part, under the objectives, is the stage. Under the stage is the condenser. Belowthat, at the base of the microscope, is the light source. There are two knobs that controlfocus; one for coarse adjustment and one for
fine adjustment. And these are the oculars,or eyepieces. We'll come back to the microscope in a minute, but first, let's look at how to prepare wet mount slides. The complete vaginal wet mount involves botha saline prep and a potassium hydroxide, or KOH, prep. When the vaginal sample was collected,the swab was placed in a test tube with approximately half a milliliter of saline. So, for the salineprep, you only have to take a drop of the suspension and place it on a slide. Add acoverslip, being careful to avoid trapping air bubbles. Your saline slide is ready.Place a second drop of the vaginal sample on another slide and add one drop of 10 percentKOH. Sniff the preparation immediately, using
your hand to waft any odor toward your nose.This is the whiff test. Note if there's a fishy or amine odor. Then add a coverslip,avoiding air bubbles. Keep in mind that you must work quickly to prepare and examine thewet mounts. That's because trichomonads may lose their characteristic motility within15 to 20 minutes. Before we move on now, though, let's lookat the cast of characters you may discover. These are normal squamous epithelial cellsfound in the vagina. They're large, flat cells with a small nucleus and a large area of cytoplasm.Note that there is some granularity in the cytoplasm.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known asPolys, or PMNs. They may also be called white blood cells, or WBCs. These are small roundcells. Several lobes of the nucleus are visible within the surrounding cell cytoplasm. Findingmany PMNs may indicate infection. Trichomonads are pearshaped protozoa whichmove by means of flagella. Trichomonads are similar in size to PMNs and are identifiedby their characteristic jerking movement. The actual flagella may be too thin and toorapidlymoving to be seen. A clue cell is a squamous epithelial cellcoated with enough small bacteria that at least 75 percent of the cell's border is obliterated.It may look as if someone has spread glue
over the cell and pressed it in sand. Cluecells are associated with bacterial vaginosis, a condition in which the normal microbialflora of the vagina is disrupted. Yeast may be found in two forms. Pseudohyphaeare the long, tubular, branching forms. Budding yeast are paired yeast cells that resemblea shoe print. The larger part is the sole and the smaller bud is the heel of the shoe. The saline prep will allow you to see epithelialcells, PMNs, trichomonads, and clue cells. You can also see yeast in saline, but sometimesit's hidden by epithelial cells or by PMNs. Red blood cells, sperm, and bacteria can alsobe seen.
Is Apple Cider Vinegar A Miracle Cure
OK. DOWN THE HATCH.Gross. I hope this works. Hey there health nuts and internet crazers,Trace here for DNews. There are broad claims regarding the efficacy of apple cider vinegar'spower to curb appetite, burn fat, cure rashes, stop heartburn, bring down fever, and cureasthma, treat wounds, reduce the effects of aging, and even cure diseases like cancer!Is this a miracle drugé! No. It's not. Butâ€¦ that doesn't mean it's bunk.what is ithow it's made Vinegar is a derivative of alcoholic beverages.To make their bottled delights, winemakers ferment grapes with yeast. The yeast eat sugarfrom the grapes and poop out alcohol! Yum!
To make vinegar is the same, but acetobacterbacteria is added to wine! The bacteria eats the alcohol and poops out acetic acid. Aceticacid is what make vinegar, vinegar! The word vinegar comes from French for sour wine, althoughit can be made from wine, beer, rice, or other fermentables like wood. Apple cider vinegaris made with you guessed it, double fermented apple cider. Apples to hard cider to applecider vinegar. Personal note: why did y'all mess up a good thingéwhat's special about ité According to the USDA apple cider vinegarcontains none of the vitamins A, B6, C, E, or K, and no niacin, riboflavin, thiamin,pantothenic acid or folate. What it DOES contain,
according to the FDA, is a minimum of 4% aceticacid, and a lot of water. This means vinegar (or acetic acid) likely won't make you thinner,and there's no scientific support of it as a skin toner. And when Medscape General Medicine conducteda review of the research on vinegar, they found it was not recommended as an antiinfectiousmedicine orally or topically, and probably doesn't fight hypertension. And in terms ofits cancerfighting claims, while it did shrink leukemia cells and tumors in lab experiments,but that affect hasn't been shown in humans at all.does acetic acid have any special properties
(yes)Now a 2015 study in PlosONE did find small concentrations of acetic acid can help reducebacterial growth on surfaces and PubChem lists acetic acid as having mild antibacterial andantifungal properties, which is why vinegar can be used as a mild household cleanserâ€¦But putting vinegar on your face is probably not the best idea. Pimples are bacterial infectionsof the sebaceous glands, so it might decrease bacterial load there. However, it's not recommendedby any real scientific research. Though, I did find a 1916 book for nurses that recommendedvinegar as a treatment for acne, but it also advised putting mercury on your face.so what about ingesting vinegaré
Drinking vinegar was studied far more often.Acids are known boosters of mineral absorption, so a tiny bit of vinegar on a green leafysalad can help our digestive systems absorb more calcium from the leaves than we wouldnaturally! And, a 2004 study of 11 people with Type 2 diabetes found when participantsconsumed a tiny bit of vinegar they had higher sensitivity to insulin that's a good thing.And though this study was too small to generalize to all humans, research is ongoing and isreally positive! The thing is, don't drink too much. Vinegar is an acid and will damagethe throat and stomach lining and erode teeth. There's a reason it's diluted. And speakingof deludedâ€¦ if you leave vinegar alone,
the same bacteria that fermented the alcoholto turn it to vinegar will eventually grow a massive colony which some call a mother.Yep, acetobacter bacteria grows into kombucha, eventually. There you go crunchy greeny birkenstockwearersâ€¦go be friends. wrapLook, swapping vinegar into salads and foods instead of using creams or salts will notonly help you suck in more minerals but keeps you from eating unhealthy stuff! Winwin! but if you're interesting in drinking thepremade ACV derivative, kombucha, maybe you should learn about that first in this tutorialWTF is Kombuchaé