Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
Benefiting the Environment with Innovative Solutions
Mark Lynch: The Eastern Treatment Plant wasbuilt in the late 60s and early 70s and at the time it was stateoftheart for sewagetreatment. Boags Rocks is now a very high amenity value area less than a kilometer awayfrom the discharge point. There is one of Victoria's largest surf beaches with severalhundred thousand visits per summer season. Our local EPA required us to do the upgradeto minimize the impacts of the discharge at Boags Rocks. Brett Rogers: There was pressure on us toincrease the level of treatment so that our impact on the environment was reduced. Thiswas something that the community wanted and
needed, and certainly that's what we respondedto. Mark Lynch: And we were particularly keento use Black Veatch for their broad range of international experience. They have somevery solid project experience using technologies and using processes that we've used here onthis project. James Currie: Our vision was to work withMelbourne Water and identify the correct technical solution and then to deliver that efficientlyand safely. We enhanced the level of treatment in the tertiary project and that allowed usto retain the existing shoreline discharge without the cost and the construction issuesand environmental problems of extending that
outfall. It also provided opportunities forincreased recycling of the treated effluent from the treatment plant. We've built uponthe work that Melbourne Water did to construct a trial scale facility and through that we'veselected a process train of ozonation, media filtration, ultraviolet radiation, and chlorinationthat has provided tremendous improvements to the quality of the discharge into the environmentand also provided for a fit for purpose recycled water quality that can be used by the community. Mark Lynch: Our vision was quite straightforwardand simple: we wanted to meet or exceed our local regulator's expectations, as well asthe local community's expectations, and now
that it's complete I get a great deal of satisfactionfrom the fact that the water is visibly indistinguishable from drinking water and that's the productfrom our wastewater treatment plant. James Currie: I think it's fair to say wealso benefitted the industry, that through some of the findings about using ozone andUV together in treating wastewater, we've advanced the boundaries of recycled waterprocess technology. Brett Rogers: We did achieve our objectivesin improving the amenity at the nearocean outfall at Boags Rocks and also we're leavingbehind a legacy of availability of a large amount of first class recycled water availablefor the use by people of Melbourne, and I
guess that is my greatest pride that we'releaving that legacy.