Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
The Immune System Explained I Bacteria Infection
Narrator: Every second of your life youare under attack. Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi are trying to make youtheir home. So our bodies have developed a super complex little army with guards,soldiers, intelligence, weapons factories and communicators to protect you from uh,well, dying. For this tutorial, let's assume the immune system has twelve different jobs. For example, kill enemies, communicate etc. And it has 21 different cells and twoprotein forces. These cells have up to four different jobs. Let's assign them. Here are the interactions. Now let's make this understandable. First of all, let's addcolors to the jobs. Now let's illustrate
the cells. The central color represents the main job of the cell, while the surrounding ones represent secondary duties. Now the immune system looks like this. Now the interactions. Isn't this complexity just awesomeé For this tutorial we will only talk about these cells and ignore the rest. So what happens in the case of an infectioné Music It's a beautiful day when suddenly a wild rusty nail appears and you cut yourself. The first barrier of the immune system isbreached: your skin. Nearby bacteria sieze
on the opportunity and enter your wound.They start using up the body's resources and double their numbers about every 20 minutes. At first they fly under the radar but when a certain bacteria population isreached, they change their behavior and start to damage the body by changing the environment around them. The immune system has to stop them as fast as possible. First of all your guard cells, known as macrophages, intervene. They are huge cells that guard every border region of the body. Most of the time they alone cansuffocate an attack because they can devour up to 100 intruders each. They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane.
Then the enemy gets broken down by enzymesand is killed. On top of that, they cause inflammation by ordering the blood vesselsto release water into the battlefield so fighting becomes easier. You notice this as a very mild swelling. When the macrophages fight for too long, they call in heavy backup by releasing messenger proteins that communicate location and urgency. Neutrophiles leave their patrol routes in the blood and move to the battlefield. TheNeutrophiles fight so furiously that they kill healthy cells in the process. On top of that, they generate barriers that trap and kill the bacteria. They are indeed so deadly that they evolved to commit suicide
after five days to prevent them from causing too much damage. If this is not enough to stop the invasion, the brain of the immune system kicks in. The dendritic cell gets active. It reacts to the signals of the soldiers and starts collecting samples from the enemies. They rip them into piecesand present the parts on their outer layer. Now, the dendritic cell makes a crucial decision. Should they call for antivirus forces that eradicate infected body cells,or an army of bacteria killersé In this case, antibacteria forces are necessary.It then travels to the closest lymph node in about a day. Here billions of helper andKillerT cells are waiting to be activated.
When TCells are born they go through adifficult and complicated training process and only a quarter survives. The survivingcells are equipped with a specific setup. And the dendritic cell is on its way lookingfor a helper Tcell with a set up that's just right. It's looking for a helper Tcellthat combines the parts of the intruders which the dendritic cell has presented on its membrane. When it finally finds one, a chain reaction takes place. The helper Tcell is activated. It quickly duplicates thousands of times. Some become memory Tcells that stay in the lymph node and will make you practically immune to this enemy.Some travel to the field of battle to help
How Do I Know If I Have A Yeast Infection Or A Bacterial Infection
Here's a good question, an intelligent question.I like intelligent questions because they require me to really think about giving quitea reasonably good reply. This question comes from a lady in Australia. How do I know ifI have a yeast infection or a bacterial infectioné What is the differenceé How can I tell howéHow can the tellé It's a tough one. It really catches peopleout and, in fact, it's something I struggled with, too. To be quite honest, I don't carewhat kind of infection you've got. All I care about is trying to find out what caused theproblem and how I can fix it, how I can remedy the problem.
The two key things that you look at with peoplewhen they come to you presenting with problems are the signs and symptoms. I may have spokento you about this before. Symptoms are very important to me. Symptoms are subjective;these are what the patients tell you. You can't measure them. You can't quantify them.You can't see them. You can only go by what the person is telling you, what they're experiencing,what they're feeling; whereas, signs are something we can see with our eyes. We can test. We can see cuts. We can see wounds,for example. We can see hair loss. We can see skin rashes. These are signs. Also testscan pick up things, but sometimes these things
don't match; the signs and symptoms don'tmatch. And with infections, it's very difficult to try to piece the signs and symptoms togetherbecause both of them can create a similar outcome. Bacterial infections can create feversin the body or temperatures that can create tiredness; all sorts of problems can occur,so there's no clearcut way really of finding out. Some people will argue with me that thereis, but in the end, it's not really important. The important thing is basically to find outwhat got the person in this mess, help them overcome it, and prevent them from gettinginto this mess again.
So a couple of telltale signs that will determinethe Candida infection will be the sugar craving. The craving for sugar is the blood sugar drops,particularly around meal times, they'll have some food, they'll go down really quick, they'lldevelop gut problems quickly, many of them after meals. These are things. So look atthe symptoms that are characteristic of Candida infection, which can point you in the directionof that person having Candida, the itching, the bloating, gas, craving for sugar, thevaginal infection, the jock itch, the toenail fungus, itchy anywhere on the body. It's lesslikely that the person's going to have itching in and around their body if it's a bacterialinfection, but it is possible.
But in the end what you're going to find isthat most people with a Candida infection will have a bacterial infection anyway, especiallyin their digestive system. There will be parasites and bacteria and yeast infection there. Allof that needs treatment. Then it becomes less important to worry about what the person'sgot. After doing many, many thousands of stooltests, I can tell you that nearly every patient I see with a Candida infection, we can cultureit and we can see it through a microscopy that that person will also have various kindof dysbiosis or SIBO, small intestinal bowel overgrowth. They'll have bacteria there. Probablyin about 15 or 20 percent of cases, there
will be parasites like Blastocystis, Dientamoebafragilis; they'll be present there as well as the bad bacteria. And the other thing that you probably haven'teven thought about is what about the good bacteriaé Because people with bacterial infectionsmay have not a bacterial infection, they may just have a lack of beneficial bacteria. Andin that case, the bacteria that are generally okay like ecoli may become pathogenic orturn into criminals or quot;militantsquot; as we call them today. Guys with their guns running aroundshooting. We may get that scenario as well. As you can see, there's a lot more at stakehere than just determining whether they've