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How Do You Get A Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infections Animation

A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infectionin any part of the urinary system — the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. An infection of the urethra, or urethritis,may cause burning sensation when urinating and cloudy discharge. A bladder infection, or cystitis, may resultin pelvic pain, frequent, painful urination, and blood in urine. A kidney infection, or acute pyelonephritis,may cause back pain (possibly only on one side), high fever, chills and nausea.

UTIs typically occur when bacteria enter theurinary tract through the urethra and multiply in the bladder. Most commonly, these bacteria come from thedigestive tract through fecal matter. UTIs are more common in women because of theiranatomy. Specifically, the short distance from theA to the opening of the urethra and bladder makes it easier for the bacteria from thedigestive tract to reach the urinary system. This is why the most common UTIs occur mainlyin women and affect the bladder and urethra. Other bacteria may be brought over with Scontact.

Women who use certain types of birth controlsuch as diaphragms or spermicidal agents are more at risk. Hormonal deficiency during menopause alsomakes women more vulnerable to infection. Infection limited to the bladder can be easilytreated with antibiotics. However, if left untreated, a lower urinarytract infection may spread up to the kidneys where it becomes more dangerous. A kidney infection may result in permanentkidney damage. In rare cases, an infection may also spreadto the bloodstream and can be life threatening.

Urinary tract infections can be preventedfollowing these steps: Drink plenty of fluids – to flush outbacteria more frequently. Wipe from front to back after a bowel movement this helps prevent bacteria in stools from spreading to the urethra. Empty the bladder soon after I to flushbacteria. Avoid feminine products such as douchesand powders, which could irritate the urethra. Avoid diaphragms and spermicides as birthcontrol methods.

Lower urinary tract infection cystitis

With cystitis, cyst refers to the bladder,and itis refers to inflammation, therefore cystitis describes an inflamed bladder, whichis usually the result of a bacterial infection, but also can result from fungal infections,chemical irritants, foreign bodies like kidney stones, as well as trauma. Now a urinary tract infection, or UTI, isany infection of the urinary tract, which includes the upper portion of the tract—thekidneys and ureters, and the lower portion of the tract—the bladder and urethra. So cystitis, when it's caused by an infection,is a type of lower UTI.

Lower UTIs are almost always caused by anascending infection, where bacteria typically moves from the rectal area to the urethraand then migrate up the urethra and into the bladder. Having said that, on rare occasions, a descendinginfection can happen as well where bacteria starts in the blood or lymph and then goesto the kidney and makes its way down to the bladder and urethra. Normally, urine is sterile, meaning bacteriadoesn't live there; the composition of urine, which has a high urea concentration and lowpH, helps keep bacteria from setting up camp.

Also, though, the unidirectional flow in theact of urinating also helps to keep bacteria from invading the urethra and bladder. Some bacteria, though, are better survivingin and resisting these conditions, and can stick to and colonize the bladder mucosa. E. coli accounts for the vast majority ofUTIs, also though, other gram negative bacteria that can infect the bladder include Klebsiella,Proteus, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. On the other hand, gram positive bacteriacan also cause problems, like Enterococcus species, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus,which is actually the second most common cause

after E. coli and particularly affects young,sexually active women. That said, as far as risk factors go, sexualintercourse is a major risk factor, because bacteria can be introduced into the urethra,and this is sometimes even referred to as “honeymoon cystitis�. In general, women are at higher risk for cystitisthan men, due to having a shorter urethra. This is because bacteria that are ascendingup the urethra don't have to travel as far. Also, in postmenopausal women there is adecrease in estrogen levels which causes the normal protective vaginal flora to be lost,increasing the risk of a UTI.

Other risk factors include presence of a Foleycatheter in the urethra, which can introduce pathogens. Another risk factor is having diabetes mellitus,since people with diabetes tend to have hyperglycemia or high blood glucose. Normally with an infection, neutrophils moveout of the circulatory system toward the infection, called diapedesis, as well as carry out phagocytosis,but hyperglycemia inhibits these processes, making those neutrophils less effective atkilling invaders. Also, infant boys with foreskin around theirpenis have a slightly higher risk of a UTI

compared to infant boys who've have hada circumcision. A final important risk factor is impairedbladder emptying causing urinary stasis, which means urine tends to sit still, allowing bacteriathe chance to adhere and colonize in the bladder. Symptoms of cystitis include suprapubic pain,which is pain in the lower abdomen, dysuria, which is painful or difficulty urinating,as well as frequent urination and urgency, meaning you have to go a lot and you haveto go now, and typically the urine voids are small in volume. Having said that, symptoms can differ by age;infants might have a fever, become fussy,

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