How To Know If You Have A Bacterial Infection Or Virus
The Immune System Explained I Bacteria Infection
Narrator: Every second of your life youare under attack. Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi are trying to make youtheir home. So our bodies have developed a super complex little army with guards,soldiers, intelligence, weapons factories and communicators to protect you from uh,well, dying. For this tutorial, let's assume the immune system has twelve different jobs. For example, kill enemies, communicate etc. And it has 21 different cells and twoprotein forces. These cells have up to four different jobs. Let's assign them. Here are the interactions. Now let's make this understandable. First of all, let's addcolors to the jobs. Now let's illustrate
the cells. The central color represents the main job of the cell, while the surrounding ones represent secondary duties. Now the immune system looks like this. Now the interactions. Isn't this complexity just awesomeé For this tutorial we will only talk about these cells and ignore the rest. So what happens in the case of an infectioné Music It's a beautiful day when suddenly a wild rusty nail appears and you cut yourself. The first barrier of the immune system isbreached: your skin. Nearby bacteria sieze
on the opportunity and enter your wound.They start using up the body's resources and double their numbers about every 20 minutes. At first they fly under the radar but when a certain bacteria population isreached, they change their behavior and start to damage the body by changing the environment around them. The immune system has to stop them as fast as possible. First of all your guard cells, known as macrophages, intervene. They are huge cells that guard every border region of the body. Most of the time they alone cansuffocate an attack because they can devour up to 100 intruders each. They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane.
Then the enemy gets broken down by enzymesand is killed. On top of that, they cause inflammation by ordering the blood vesselsto release water into the battlefield so fighting becomes easier. You notice this as a very mild swelling. When the macrophages fight for too long, they call in heavy backup by releasing messenger proteins that communicate location and urgency. Neutrophiles leave their patrol routes in the blood and move to the battlefield. TheNeutrophiles fight so furiously that they kill healthy cells in the process. On top of that, they generate barriers that trap and kill the bacteria. They are indeed so deadly that they evolved to commit suicide
after five days to prevent them from causing too much damage. If this is not enough to stop the invasion, the brain of the immune system kicks in. The dendritic cell gets active. It reacts to the signals of the soldiers and starts collecting samples from the enemies. They rip them into piecesand present the parts on their outer layer. Now, the dendritic cell makes a crucial decision. Should they call for antivirus forces that eradicate infected body cells,or an army of bacteria killersé In this case, antibacteria forces are necessary.It then travels to the closest lymph node in about a day. Here billions of helper andKillerT cells are waiting to be activated.
When TCells are born they go through adifficult and complicated training process and only a quarter survives. The survivingcells are equipped with a specific setup. And the dendritic cell is on its way lookingfor a helper Tcell with a set up that's just right. It's looking for a helper Tcellthat combines the parts of the intruders which the dendritic cell has presented on its membrane. When it finally finds one, a chain reaction takes place. The helper Tcell is activated. It quickly duplicates thousands of times. Some become memory Tcells that stay in the lymph node and will make you practically immune to this enemy.Some travel to the field of battle to help
Cold vs Flu Whats The Difference
This episode of DNews is brought to you byHARRY'S. So, it's cold and flu season. That sucks.But whenever I feel crappy, I can't tell if I've got the cold, or the flu does it matteréWhat's the differenceé! When I get a cough, or a headache or whateverfor a few days, I always assume it will go away, or that I just have a coldâ€¦ but sometimesâ€¦it's the FLU! Even though the medicine says its for both the cold and the flu, they'reentirely different viruses. The common cold is caused by over 200 different viruses! Coronaviruses,rhinoviruses, metapneumoviruses, enteroviruses and parainfluenza viruses all make the shortlist; but they really are all different. This
is why we can't quot;curequot; the common cold. Theflu, on the other hand, is caused by influenza viruses. These respiratory viruses invadethe body and set up shop and cause very similar symptoms, because the human body only hasso many ways to fight. When your body is invaded by a virus, chancesare you'll get the same symptoms every time, dry or sore throat, coughing and sneezing,mild fever, congestion and maybe a headache. Pretty standard stuff. If it's REALLY bad,you'll get aches and pains and exhaustion too. This happens because your body is spendingresources fighting off the viral infection. In general, flu is worse than the common cold,the fever is higher, the aches and level of
exhaustion are more pronounced, and the coughcan be more intense. While there's almost no way to tell the difference between thetwo infectionsâ€¦ colds tend to produce a fever less than 101 (38C), affects the throatand cause a runny nose. The flu, affects the lungs and the joints so you're likely tofeel more achy than leaky. Telling the difference is one thing, but onceyou're infected you only have a couple days to get treatment. After the first 48 hours,the infection has usually stopped multiplying and is wreaking havoc on the body instead.Regardless, once symptoms start for viral infections, there's no simple cure. AntibioticsWILL NOT HELP, because they fight BACTERIA
not VIRUSES. Taking an antibacterial drugduring a viral infection is pointless. In fact, a lot of the remedies for colds andthe flu aren't really based onâ€¦ well science. Many people take vitamin C like it's goingout of style, but a study from the University of Alberta looked at results and found there'sreally no evidence that it helps. Results suggest it MIGHT help with marathon runnerswho have compromised immune systems due to exhaustion, but even then it's a minor help.I like to take zinc when I'm starting to feel ill, and science DOES support that. Zinc isused by human immune cells as a catalyst, so when you boost the amount of zinc yourimmune cells can protect the body a bit better,
but too much can damage it so don't overmedicate. In the end, a cold will persist for 10 days,while some flu symptoms will persist for three weeks; long after the influenza virus hasbeen eradicated. If you REALLY want to avoid getting sick, get a flu vaccination. Only30 percent of surveyed adults get vaccinated year over year. Flu vaccines are made everyyear by specialists who use massive datasets to predict which influenza viruses will dominatethis season see, there's more than one mutation, and they vie for power and bodiesto infect. The 2014 flu vaccine will protect against Influenza A H1N1 and H3N2, as wellas a couple influenza B viruses. You might
recognize H1N1, we're still seeing that leftover from 2009's unexpected flu epidemic! Crazy righté So yes, there IS a difference between coldsand flu, but if you catch one of the over 200 viruses that cause these crappy feelingsthe best way to handle it is to drink fluids and help keep yourself hydrated and rest.If you minimize nutritional strain on your immune system by enjoying warm chicken soupand let your immune system do it's work, you'll be fine. Empathy can also help, studies haveshown people who have families or even an empathetic recover faster than thosewho don't so help out a friend if they're