Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that exists in the vagina. So I'll draw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this up in our key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here,
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Finding and interpreting Altmetric data for published papers
I am Don Samulack, President, US Operationsat Editage, Cactus Communications. And I am here in London in the UK atthe Digital Science offices within the Macmillan Building talking to EuanAdie, Founder and CEO of Altmetric. So, welcome and this is another of thevignette series of our discussions. So, Altmetric is part of Digital Science,which is for now anyway under the envelope of Macmillan Publishing. And under MacmillanPublishing is Nature Publishing Group. So, Altmetric is used by Nature and if I goto a Nature page and to an article and how do I find for that article the Altmetricdonut as you refer to it and its metricsé
So, quite often publishers will beembedding Altmetric's data on their pages. So, certainly a significant numberof journals if you visit them, especially in the STM space, willhave somewhere on their site either one of our kind of donut badges, socolorful circles, or sometimes there is a little rectangle version, orthey have the real metric stamp. But either way theseare the same data. So, if you open up a paper andthere is a badge of some sort that you wouldneed to click on
I'm just trying to indicateto an author how do they find this Altmetricdata for the paper. So how you reach Altmetric datavaries from publisher to publisher. Quite often, there is a badge underneaththe title of the paper. for example, and it will either say quot;Altmetricquot; or itwill look like this colorful donut. Okay. That we use elsewhere. And when you click on that, that's whenyou'll be able to see the metrics report.
So, as an author looks at a paper forthe Altmetric donut or the rainbow circle, the rainbow circle the colorsaround the donut mean something. So, if you can define in very general termshow a paper is represented by this donuté What we are trying to do with the donutamidst the colorful circle is to give you a quick impression of thekinds of attention and how much attentionthe paper has got. So if you think about there is adifference between a paper that has been mentioned lot in thenews but not picked up by other
scholars versus something that's beenused a lot in policy and practice but no members of the generalpublic have been talking about it. What we are trying to dois that give you very quick indication ofwhen that's happening. And the way we do it is we havedifferent colors for different sources. And at first nobody rememberswhat they are but once you see five or six of them, thenyou start to understand. The more colors there areon the donut means the
different places theyhave talked about it. And there is also anumber in the middle. Yeah, so sometimespublishers hide the number and the number is muchmore tied to how much attention there is andalso it's a certain measure of quality ofattention, not the paper. If you think about justplaces where your paper can be mentioned. if yourpaper is mentioned by,