Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally foundthe vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could bethe case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna aw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. Soorder to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that existsthe vagina. So I'll aw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this upour key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll aw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat existthis sample. So if you really look at it here,
Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
5 Myths About STIsSTDs You Probably Believe
Teacher: It is important to disclose STI statusto all sexual partners. Student: â€œWell I don't have any STIs,but if I did I wouldn't have any trouble telling my partners about it.â€� Voiceover: Well maybe. But it's possibleneither of those things are true. Let's talk about STIs. intro music Hi everyone! My name is Sarah, and welcomeback to Everyday Consent. Talking about Sexually Transmitted Infectionswith your partners, also known as STIs or
STDs, is an important part of informed consent.Knowing your partner's STI status helps you to know the health risks involvedhavingsex with them and make informed decisions about how you want to protect your health. But if a partner did tell you they had anSTI, how well would you really understand what that meant for you and your relationshipéThere is a lot of stigma and misinformation out there about STIs. Myths about STIs areso common that even if you did have decent sexual eduion, you might still believesome of them yourself. Being misinformedthis way can make having a meaningful conversationwith your partner about STI risks more difficult
and scary than it needs to be. To help makethose conversations a little easier, today I want to dispel my top Five Common MythsAbout STIs. Myth 1: STIs are really rare, or only happento irresponsible people or people who don't use condoms In truth, STIs are very common. In the US,14 teens will contract an STI each year. And fully half of all sexuallyactive peoplein the US will contract an STI by the time they turn 25. The Center for Disease Controlreports that most sexuallyactive people will get at least one type of HPVtheir lives,and several strains of that virus can cause
Genital Warts or Cervical Cancer. The WorldHealth Organization estimates that twothirds of the entire world population under the ageof 50 has HSV1, which is one of two strains of the virus that causes both oral and genitalHerpes. While Safer Sex methods such as condoms canprevent or greatly reduce the chance of spreading many STIs, some STIs such as HPV and Herpesare spread through skintoskin contact. This means that condoms cannot fully protect againsttransmission of these STIs during sex. And it also means that these STIs can be spreadthrough completely nonsexual contact, such as your Great Aunt Sally giving you a kisson the cheek when she has a cold sore.
So STIs are super common and even if someoneis really â€œresponsibleâ€� and uses condoms every time they have sex, or doesn't havesex at all, they can still contract an STI. Myth 2: Everyone that has an STI knows thatthey have an STI Haha, nope! It is extremely common to havean STI and not know it. First of all someone might not be experiencing any symptoms. Accordingto the World Health Organization, the majority of STIs have no symptoms or only mild symptomsthat may not be recognized as an STI. That's why regular testing for STIs is recommendeegardless of whether you're actually showing symptoms.
But okay, at this point you're probablythinking, â€œOkay Sarah, I know, you gotta get tested. But I've been tested recentlyand they all came back negative. So I know I don't have anything.â€� Well, the thing is, even if you marched toyour 's office, head held high, and proclaimed â€œI would like a full STI panel,please! Give me everything you've got!â€� most places will actually only test you forthings that they think you are at risk for based on things like age, gender, ethnicity,loion,and sexual history. So if, for example, you area population determined to be atvery low risk for Syphilis, many places will