Teacher: It is important to disclose STI statusto all sexual partners. Student: â€œWell I don't have any STIs,but if I did I wouldn't have any trouble telling my partners about it.â€� Voiceover: Well maybe. But it's possibleneither of those things are true. Let's talk about STIs. intro music Hi everyone! My name is Sarah, and welcomeback to Everyday Consent. Talking about Sexually Transmitted Infectionswith your partners, also known as STIs or
STDs, is an important part of informed consent.Knowing your partner's STI status helps you to know the health risks involvedhavingsex with them and make informed decisions about how you want to protect your health. But if a partner did tell you they had anSTI, how well would you really understand what that meant for you and your relationshipéThere is a lot of stigma and misinformation out there about STIs. Myths about STIs areso common that even if you did have decent sexual eduion, you might still believesome of them yourself. Being misinformedthis way can make having a meaningful conversationwith your partner about STI risks more difficult
and scary than it needs to be. To help makethose conversations a little easier, today I want to dispel my top Five Common MythsAbout STIs. Myth 1: STIs are really rare, or only happento irresponsible people or people who don't use condoms In truth, STIs are very common. In the US,14 teens will contract an STI each year. And fully half of all sexuallyactive peoplein the US will contract an STI by the time they turn 25. The Center for Disease Controlreports that most sexuallyactive people will get at least one type of HPVtheir lives,and several strains of that virus can cause
Genital Warts or Cervical Cancer. The WorldHealth Organization estimates that twothirds of the entire world population under the ageof 50 has HSV1, which is one of two strains of the virus that causes both oral and genitalHerpes. While Safer Sex methods such as condoms canprevent or greatly reduce the chance of spreading many STIs, some STIs such as HPV and Herpesare spread through skintoskin contact. This means that condoms cannot fully protect againsttransmission of these STIs during sex. And it also means that these STIs can be spreadthrough completely nonsexual contact, such as your Great Aunt Sally giving you a kisson the cheek when she has a cold sore.
So STIs are super common and even if someoneis really â€œresponsibleâ€� and uses condoms every time they have sex, or doesn't havesex at all, they can still contract an STI. Myth 2: Everyone that has an STI knows thatthey have an STI Haha, nope! It is extremely common to havean STI and not know it. First of all someone might not be experiencing any symptoms. Accordingto the World Health Organization, the majority of STIs have no symptoms or only mild symptomsthat may not be recognized as an STI. That's why regular testing for STIs is recommendeegardless of whether you're actually showing symptoms.
But okay, at this point you're probablythinking, â€œOkay Sarah, I know, you gotta get tested. But I've been tested recentlyand they all came back negative. So I know I don't have anything.â€� Well, the thing is, even if you marched toyour 's office, head held high, and proclaimed â€œI would like a full STI panel,please! Give me everything you've got!â€� most places will actually only test you forthings that they think you are at risk for based on things like age, gender, ethnicity,loion,and sexual history. So if, for example, you area population determined to be atvery low risk for Syphilis, many places will
Whats bugging you The Intersection of Genomics and Infectious Disease Jonathan Zenilman
Jonathan Zenilman:Good morning. Thanks for inviting me and I just want to check, am I okay with the soundand stuff like thaté Okay, because we're being taped. What I was asked to do this is actuallypart of the NIH series and I was asked to provide some insights on how genomics haschanged infectious diseases. So what I thought I would do this morning is take you on a littlebit of an odyssey, which includes my personal odyssey and some of the work that I've doneand how my life has changed, how our diagnostics have changed as well, and then show you acouple of case examples where the advent of
genomics technology has changed our abilityto diagnose, manage, treat, and also understand the epidemiology impliions of infections. First of all, I have no conflicts. 2003 wasan interesting year. Besides Collins' editorialThe New England Journal, it wasalso the year when the human genome was sequenced and published. And it was also a year wherewe had the first major case where infectious diseases were rapidly diagnosedan outbreaksetting exclusively via genomics, and I'll show you. Now, I hope some of you probablyremember this. And these still exist but, you know, culture there are many forexample, I have infectious disease fellows
now who've never seen a Gram stain. So theworld has changed substantially since the good old days. This is gonococcal this is gonococcal thisis neisseria gonorrhoeae, and here we have the candle jar which used to be used for transportingthese bugs. However, as you know, cultures take 24 to 48 hours to process. In an erawhen we need rapid diagnostic information, this is a problem. Cultures are prone to overgrowthand all kinds of problems and as we see centralization of laboratory services, it's difficult therecan be major transport problems. For example, if I did this once, which may indiethat I'm a bit of a strange guy: If you go
to the FAA website at 4:00the morningand see what planes arethe air, it's FedEx and Quest Labs because your laboratory yourlaboratory work may go to a Quest or a Labcorp labSalt Lake City, depending on what specificallyyou're ordering. So the days when you can go down to your local microbiologylab and speak to the tech to find out what's going on are many cases, don't existanymore. So,principles, the advent of the genomicera has resultedmany opportunities for infectious disease diagnosis and management.Basically, you wanted the tech the ideas of the tech speciesspecific DNA amplifiedusually by amplifiion technology, often
polymerase chain reaction, but there are awhole host of newer technologies which have come online over the past few years. One ofthe key elements is that bacteria DNA have unique 16S ribosome sequences which can beused to pluck bacterial DNA out of a mixture of human, animal, or other types of DNA. Thisshould be matched it's the DNAs that matched to libraries which have the specific sequencesand right now there's over 2,000 sequence bacteria who've been fully sequenced and thisnumber is increasing exponentially. It's linked to a detection system and the detection systemtechnology has been really advancing incredibly rapidly to the point where these are now desktopmachines with small footprints and I'll show
you. And just for those of you for , I knowmost of you have seen this, PCRs preliminary chain reaction is the typical amplifiionsystem. This is your target DNA. The strands are separated. There's a polymerase whichactually alyzes the attachment of another strand and then this goes on, usually viaa thermocycler, which is a heating which is where the system is heated to 95 degreesCentigrade and then rapidly cooled, which anneals the DNA. And basically within usuallyan hour you can get 30 amplifiion steps. If you remember back from when you were akid, if you take a penny and double it, after