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Bacterial Vaginosis Patient Uk

Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella

Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,

allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap

smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora “Whiff Test.� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.

This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested

by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal

squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse

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I'm Dawn Harper. I'm a GP witha particular interestwomen's health. Migraine is an incredibly common problem that affects around 6 million peoplein the UK. Twothirds of those are women. 'I do see a lot of people who describetheir headaches as migraine.' I think we have to be careful that, as miserable as headaches are,they are not all migraines. Migraines classically areonesided headaches,

often associated with nausea,quite often actually make you sick. Usually people feel they have tojust lie downa darkened room. They don't like the light. They really are severe headacheswhich last for several hours. In some poor folk,will last for two or three days. Migraine can be very frightening. In its most severe form, I have seenpeople who think they've had a stroke, because actually they lose the useof one side of their body

during the attack. That is thankfully not common. But it's very common for peopleto lose part of their visual field, so they can't see anything on one side or everythingone part of theirvision has zigzag lines through it. That's very common. Onesix migrainesufferers will suffer with that. It can be frightening,particularly the first time. My cutoff really

is if you are suffering with migrainesmore than once or twice a fortnight. Really, you should behaving a chat to me about what else we can doto try and prevent them. There's been lots of debateabout what really causes migraine. I think the jury is still out. One theory is that, for some reason, particular triggersin susceptible people, and it does seem to runfamilies,

will cause a spasm of the blood vesselssupplying the brain. So that temporarilythe blood supply is impaired, which is what gives the problemswith vision and so on. Then as the blood vessels dilateafter the spasm, you then get the pounding headache. The thing about migraine isrecognising what triggers it for you. Really, the first thing I dowith any of my patients who we think may have a migraine

is to get them to keep a symptom diaryand a food and ink diary. What we usually find,relatively quickly, you can identify your own triggers. So, really it's a case of tryingto identify what will cause it for you and then avoiding those. For many people, actually,that's all they need to do. If, despite all that,you're still struggling with symptoms, then many will cope with their symptomswith simple overthecounter remedies.

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