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Bacterial Vaginosis Research Studies

Microbiome DynamicsAdults Jacques Ravel

Jacques Ravel:Okay. Well, thank you for the invitation. So, what I'm going to talk about is not justdynamics, but maybe try to bring a little ecological principle into the study of dynamicsin the context of the human microbiome. And, obviously, most of my work has been centeredon the human vagina, so I will bring examples that are derived from the our study ofthe dynamicsthe human vagina. But before I start I just also want to saythat it's very important to understand that, especially when it comes to those principle and I'll reiterate this later that not every body site is going to be governed bythe same principle. And I think we've seen

this many times comparing diversity, for example,across different body site. And the vagina appears to be one of those site that appearsto behave differently, whereas low diversity being something that's good whenthe gut,we just heard low diversity appears to be associated with something bad. So, that said, before we go on and discussingdynamics and so onthe psychological framework, we might want to start discussing a littledefinition. Sothe context of ecology, dynamics is only one of the most importantcentral theme to study microbial community ecology.

So the dynamics of microbial community canbe defined as a temporal and spatial changescommunity structure as well as or function.So every time we talk about change, this idea of stability comes along. And I know someof it might be a little redundant with what David just talked about, but stability andinstability has been defined extensivelyecology, but also with quite a diverse setof views to it. In 1997 those authored aloged over 167definition of stability justthe field of ecology. But pretty much they could summarizethis, that stability encompasses three principle: one of them is this idea of resistance, orwhat we call also constancy, where a community

pretty much is staying essentially unchangedover time; as well as resilience which David has talked about, where a community can bedisturbed but return to a reference state; and the last one is what we call persistence,and persistence, it's when the community pretty much persistsone ecological state throughouttime. So one reason that there's so many definitionof stability is certainly because they're not all asking people using stability arenot all asking the same question. But pretty much you can kind of summarize this by sayingthat stability, if you want, quantifies the extent to which a community stay the same.And I think that just simplifies a lot and

for this work. So it stay the same over along period of time. And, of course, it depend on timescale. So if you're talking a lifespan, if you're talking a few years or decade, all this is going to change. And it can staythe same over time orthe face of some disturbance and I think David has touchedon this quite extensively. So there are many, many ways that by whichyou can measure different metrics that you have to measure stability, and I listed alot of them. And again, it might be redundant on what David just said, but depending onthe metrics that you're going to use to establish and define stability, you might get differentanswer. And you might have some community

that appears to be stable given one metrics,but given another metrics are somewhat unstable. And this was just a paper by Jeff Gordon'slab recently that showed that by just introducing a probiotic, the community is not changingin composition, but its activity, its gene expression of the community is amaticallychanging. So again so it's very importantterms of the metrics that you can do. Soeither composition type metrics or maybe some more functional aspect of the community. Andcomposition both include doing gene survey to get to relative abundance, as well as someof the work, for example, by Dave Frederickthe vaginal microbiota that looks moreat specific species QPCR spelled phonetically

Research On Turmeric Part One Healing Herb

This tutorial clip is about Turmeric, a verypopular supplement selling all over the world. And I am going to talk, about a little bitabout the science behind it. And I'm not a scientist. So I am not going to dwell toomuch on it. But I like science because it's precise. And it is the idiom that most peoplecan understand. And it is a very useful idiom and also a metaphor and also a science.Well, this — I picked up this magazine here, “Life Extension� March 2016. This is amagazine that publishes new discoveriesmodern medicine, particularlythe fieldof Herbology. They say that Turmeric can help with neurodegenerativedisease like Alzheimer's, like Parkinson's

and then, also cancer. It is very interesting.And it is highly documented. And I am going to read a little bit about what it does fromthe magazine. And then he starts out saying that newly published data about Curcumin.Curcumin is the chemical that is foundTurmeric. In Tamil it is called Mancal. “Astonishedscientists, physicians and lay public,â€� (So many good things can happen particularlyin disease,the neurodegenerative diseases, you know, that are involved with the brain,and then how about canceré) and then She said — what is the, How canit help neurodegenerative disease which is related to the brain and also canceréâ€� Andthen he is saying that why is it so hard how

neurodegenerative diseases and cancer arerelated, and then how can Curcumin help with both.) “While neurodegeneration and cancermay seem unrelated, they have multiple mechanismscommon. They include dysfunctional chemicalsignaling� (and this is very important) “in the cells, dysfunctional signaling inthe cells, and abnormal gene regulations, as well as vulnerability to chemical stressesand inflammation.� (See, these are the common things between the neurodegenerative diseaseand cancer.) And then they have found amazing things andthen I want you to look at the magazine. And also, as I said this is not my field, butthen amazing things he reports, I am going

to read only the topics: Curcumin's AntiAlzheimer'sMechanisms. Curcumin Battles Neurodegeneration and Cancer. Parkinson's Disease. CurcuminCombats Tumors. Curcumin Slows Progression Of Fast Growing Cancers. And then there isa Table No. 2: Curcumin and Cancer Prevention Mechanisms.So I remember my mother, when I was growing upRameshwaram, used to give me a glassof milk with Turmeric and other spices every day when I would go to bed. And she used togive that. And at that time, you know, I thought that is some practice that has no significancefor brain development or that can arrest cancer cells. But later on I began to understandthe, of course, recently I am very deeply

involvedunderstanding the basis for HerbalMedicine. And particularlyIndia, Herbal Medicine is acknowledged by the government,Ayurveda and Siddha Medicine and a bunch of others too.Now, I have made tutorials on how there is a Being behind these herbs. The Being can doa lot better than, better than the chemical itself. Here the Curcumin which is found theysay the chemical combination or the chemical symbol for that is: C21H20O6. That's Curcumin,but this is science. But to talk about the Goddess behind Turmericis very interesting. Not only interesting, but very useful. In every auspiscious ceremony,Curcumin is used. And whether it is a wedding

or somebody has attained puberty or if thereis a house warming ceremony, or any ceremony associated with prosperity, fertility, alwaysCurcumin is involved. And then the people, but there are not many Goddesses with thename of Turmeric, although there are a few stered around. It is important to go revivethe Goddess Tradition behind the Curcumin and also the Phonemes that are appropriatefor her. And I just want to let you know that I amnow I've been involvedempowering the Herbal Medicine through Phonemes. The Phonemes,according to Mystic Siddha Agastya, give power to the herbs. So that's why I startedNambu Botanicals. And Curcumin is also available

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