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Microbiome DynamicsAdults Jacques Ravel
Jacques Ravel:Okay. Well, thank you for the invitation. So, what I'm going to talk about is not justdynamics, but maybe try to bring a little ecological principle into the study of dynamicsin the context of the human microbiome. And, obviously, most of my work has been centeredon the human vagina, so I will bring examples that are derived from the our study ofthe dynamicsthe human vagina. But before I start I just also want to saythat it's very important to understand that, especially when it comes to those principle and I'll reiterate this later that not every body site is going to be governed bythe same principle. And I think we've seen
this many times comparing diversity, for example,across different body site. And the vagina appears to be one of those site that appearsto behave differently, whereas low diversity being something that's good whenthe gut,we just heard low diversity appears to be associated with something bad. So, that said, before we go on and discussingdynamics and so onthe psychological framework, we might want to start discussing a littledefinition. Sothe context of ecology, dynamics is only one of the most importantcentral theme to study microbial community ecology.
So the dynamics of microbial community canbe defined as a temporal and spatial changescommunity structure as well as or function.So every time we talk about change, this idea of stability comes along. And I know someof it might be a little redundant with what David just talked about, but stability andinstability has been defined extensivelyecology, but also with quite a diverse setof views to it. In 1997 those authored aloged over 167definition of stability justthe field of ecology. But pretty much they could summarizethis, that stability encompasses three principle: one of them is this idea of resistance, orwhat we call also constancy, where a community
pretty much is staying essentially unchangedover time; as well as resilience which David has talked about, where a community can bedisturbed but return to a reference state; and the last one is what we call persistence,and persistence, it's when the community pretty much persistsone ecological state throughouttime. So one reason that there's so many definitionof stability is certainly because they're not all asking people using stability arenot all asking the same question. But pretty much you can kind of summarize this by sayingthat stability, if you want, quantifies the extent to which a community stay the same.And I think that just simplifies a lot and
for this work. So it stay the same over along period of time. And, of course, it depend on timescale. So if you're talking a lifespan, if you're talking a few years or decade, all this is going to change. And it can staythe same over time orthe face of some disturbance and I think David has touchedon this quite extensively. So there are many, many ways that by whichyou can measure different metrics that you have to measure stability, and I listed alot of them. And again, it might be redundant on what David just said, but depending onthe metrics that you're going to use to establish and define stability, you might get differentanswer. And you might have some community
that appears to be stable given one metrics,but given another metrics are somewhat unstable. And this was just a paper by Jeff Gordon'slab recently that showed that by just introducing a probiotic, the community is not changingin composition, but its activity, its gene expression of the community is amaticallychanging. So again so it's very importantterms of the metrics that you can do. Soeither composition type metrics or maybe some more functional aspect of the community. Andcomposition both include doing gene survey to get to relative abundance, as well as someof the work, for example, by Dave Frederickthe vaginal microbiota that looks moreat specific species QPCR spelled phonetically