Bacterial vaginosis, or BV for short, is aninfection of the vagina that develops when the normal balance of vaginal bacteria isdisrupted. BV is the most common vaginal infectionwomen of childbearing age. Examples of activities that change the normalbacterial balance include douching, taking antibiotics, wearing an intrauterine deviceor IUD, and having unprotected sexual activity. BV is more commonsexually active womenthannonsexually active women, but it is not considered a sexually transmitted diseaseor STD. The main symptom of BV is a thin vaginal dischargethat appears grayish white and smells of fish,
especially after sexual activity. Other symptomsmay include burning when urinating, itching around the outside of the vagina, and irritation.These symptoms may also be caused by another type of infection, so it is important to seea . Many women with BV have no symptoms at all. BV is often diagnosed based on a pelvic examand symptoms, however certain tests can help confirm the diagnosis. BV will sometimes go away without treatment.Your healthcare provider may choose to treat it with antibiotics if your symptoms persist.
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What is gonorrhea
Of the manysexually transmitted infections, or STIs, gonorrhea isthe second most common. The most common STI is chlamydia. Chlamydia, and we'll talkmore about chlamydia later. Right now, let's focuson gonorrhea and why these two happen together. These two diseases often occur together for two reasons.
First, they have similar risk factors, which include things like having multiple sexual partners andor having frequent unprotected sex. The other reason is thatinfection with one of these bugs makes your body susceptibleto a second infection by dampening the immune system. So I promise we'll go into more detail
about chlamydia later, butfor now let's talk more about gonorrhea. It's caused by a bug referredto as neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the reason why we callgonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection is because itundergoes this process referred to as transmission where it moves from one person to another by several mechanisms.
Most commonly, gonorrhea willbe transmitted through sex, which can include oral sex,vaginal sex, or even anal sex. Another important mechanismof transmission includes childbirth and we'll talk moreabout the outcomes of thata minute, so theseare the main ways that gonorrhea can be transmitted. Let's move this off to theside and let's focus instead on my poor friend overhere who's going to have
all the different signs andsymptoms a person can get with gonorrhea. Now because we said themain way gonorrhea spreads from one person to the other is by sex, let's start by focusingon signs and symptoms at our sexual organs. So here you can see on theleft I have female genitalia awn out and on the right side,
we have male genitalia awn here. If we were to imagineour gonorrhea infection, so I'll use this as sortof a way to mimic gonorrhea as it spreads, perhapsyou can have a female infecting a male with gonorrhea and so, because the penis is used during sex, that can actually seedor spread up the urethra. This yellow line here,that is your urethra.