music It's a typical day. A patient has noticedsome itching, or maybe an unpleasant vaginal odor. During her exam, the ian willcheck vaginal pH, examine any discharge that's present, and collect a sample. Then, it'son to the microscope. music This is where you'll gather more specificinformationabout what's causing those vaginal symptoms. We'll show you how to prepare andexamine vaginal wet preps and how to do a whiff test. The results, combined with the patient's vaginal pH test, will aidthe diagnosis.
Under the microscope, you'll be looking for trichomonads, yeast, and the clue cells associated with bacterial vaginosis. We'll show you how to recognize them. music First, the microscope itself: This is a compoundlight microscope. It has several objective lenses on a rotating mount. For our purpose,one of these has to be a 10x low power objective, and one has to be a 40x for greater magnifiion.This flat part, under the objectives, is the stage. Under the stage is the condenser. Belowthat, at the base of the microscope, is the light source. There are two knobs that controlfocus; one for coarse adjustment and one for
fine adjustment. And these are the oculars,or eyepieces. We'll come back to the microscopea minute, but first, let's look at how to prepare wet mount slides. The complete vaginal wet mount involves botha saline prep and a potassium hyoxide, or KOH, prep. When the vaginal sample was collected,the swab was placeda test tube with approximately half a milliliter of saline. So, for the salineprep, you only have to take a op of the suspension and place it on a slide. Add acoverslip, being careful to avoid trapping air bubbles. Your saline slide is ready.Place a second op of the vaginal sample on another slide and add one op of 10 percentKOH. Sniff the preparation immediately, using
your hand to waft any odor toward your nose.This is the whiff test. Note if there's a fishy or amine odor. Then add a coverslip,avoiding air bubbles. Keepmind that you must work quickly to prepare and examine thewet mounts. That's because trichomonads may lose their characteristic motility within15 to 20 minutes. Before we move on now, though, let's lookat the cast of characters you may discover. These are normal squamous epithelial cellsfoundthe vagina. They're large, flat cells with a small nucleus and a large area of cytoplasm.Note that there is some granularitythe cytoplasm.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known asPolys, or PMNs. They may also be called white blood cells, or WBCs. These are small roundcells. Several lobes of the nucleus are visible within the surrounding cell cytoplasm. Findingmany PMNs may indie infection. Trichomonads are pearshaped protozoa whichmove by means of flagella. Trichomonads are similarsize to PMNs and are identifiedby their characteristic jerking movement. The actual flagella may be too thin and toorapidlymoving to be seen. A clue cell is a squamous epithelial cellcoated with enough small bacteria that at least 75 percent of the cell's border is obliterated.It may look as if someone has spread glue
over the cell and pressed itsand. Cluecells are associated with bacterial vaginosis, a conditionwhich the normal microbialflora of the vagina is disrupted. Yeast may be foundtwo forms. Pseudohyphaeare the long, tubular, branching forms. Budding yeast are paired yeast cells that resemblea shoe print. The larger part is the sole and the smaller bud is the heel of the shoe. The saline prep will allow you to see epithelialcells, PMNs, trichomonads, and clue cells. You can also see yeastsaline, but sometimesit's hidden by epithelial cells or by PMNs. Red blood cells, sperm, and bacteria can alsobe seen.
What is gonorrhea
Of the manysexually transmitted infections, or STIs, gonorrhea isthe second most common. The most common STI is chlamydia. Chlamydia, and we'll talkmore about chlamydia later. Right now, let's focuson gonorrhea and why these two happen together. These two diseases often occur together for two reasons.
First, they have similar risk factors, which include things like having multiple sexual partners andor having frequent unprotected sex. The other reason is thatinfection with one of these bugs makes your body susceptibleto a second infection by dampening the immune system. So I promise we'll go into more detail
about chlamydia later, butfor now let's talk more about gonorrhea. It's caused by a bug referredto as neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the reason why we callgonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection is because itundergoes this process referred to as transmission where it moves from one person to another by several mechanisms.
Most commonly, gonorrhea willbe transmitted through sex, which can include oral sex,vaginal sex, or even anal sex. Another important mechanismof transmission includes childbirth and we'll talk moreabout the outcomes of thata minute, so theseare the main ways that gonorrhea can be transmitted. Let's move this off to theside and let's focus instead on my poor friend overhere who's going to have
all the different signs andsymptoms a person can get with gonorrhea. Now because we said themain way gonorrhea spreads from one person to the other is by sex, let's start by focusingon signs and symptoms at our sexual organs. So here you can see on theleft I have female genitalia awn out and on the right side,
we have male genitalia awn here. If we were to imagineour gonorrhea infection, so I'll use this as sortof a way to mimic gonorrhea as it spreads, perhapsyou can have a female infecting a male with gonorrhea and so, because the penis is used during sex, that can actually seedor spread up the urethra. This yellow line here,that is your urethra.
Tony Hawk Rides Worlds First Real Hoverboard Hendo Hover
All right, I'm Johnny Knoxville, and I'm about to ride a hoverboard. And I am Tony Hawk, and I'm going to try it myself. This is real Folks! This is the real hoverboard right here. So forget everything you know, this is it ! Funny or die ! Mostly the die part. I'll f****** die. laughter I think the funny or die prank absolutely worked.
I mean, they really wanted that hoverboard. Their eams were shattered. The hoverboad is just a great way of capturing peoples interest and letting them know how this technology worksa way that everyone can understand. This can make a serious difference and solving a lot of serious problems. Applause That was my first 1080 ! I want to apologize for the hoverboard prank. I thought that it would be obvious that it was fake.