Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
Is A Vaginal Yeast Infection Caused By Bacteria
Hi, Eric Bakker, naturopath, author of CandidaCrusher with another female FAQ. Is a vaginal yeast infection caused by bacteriaé No, a yeast infection is caused by yeast andnot bacteria. There's a clear difference between them both. So bacterial infections generallycause a condition called bacterial vaginosis. Candida albicans causes a condition calleda vaginal yeast infection or thrush. So there's a clear distinction between them both. Yeast infections are reasonably normally occurringin many women to a very minor degree where they don't really provide strong symptoms.And quite a high degree of women have Candida
albicans normallythe tissuesthat partof the body. Some have more; some have less, but when it becomes a problem is when it'sovergrowing; it over proliferates. Bacteria are usually keptcheckthatarea, and there are bacteria that livethat part of the body, too. Corynebacterium,for example, are quite commonly foundvaginal tissuethe lining there of the vagina.And they don't usually cause a problem. Lactobacillus species arethere as well, beneficial bacteria.Other bacteria, however, are associated with vaginosis and particularly BV, or bacterialvaginosis. I've spoken about this previously. It causes more of a gray, profuse, watery,a fishy briny sort of discharge; whereas the
vaginal infection is a different infectionaltogether. Both can create an itch, and a vaginal itch is more incessant and can iveyou crazy compared to the bacterial vaginosis. Getting checked out is important here, sogo to your gynecologist or and ask to be swabbed and checked out, so you knowwhat you're dealing with then you can treat it accordingly. You can read a lot more about these conditionsin my book, Candida Crusher, particularly Chapter 5 on chronic vaginal infections. InChapter 3 under diagnosis, I go into great detail more so about the different types ofvaginal infections and inflammations. You
can read a lot more about this. I talk aboutthe medical treatmentsmy book, the natural treatments, and give you lots of solutionson how to deal with this problem. So be sure to get a copy and have a good read there. So vaginal yeast infection is caused by yeastand not bacteria, so I hope that answers your question. Thank you.