music It's a typical day. A patient has noticedsome itching, or maybe an unpleasant vaginal odor. During her exam, the ian willcheck vaginal pH, examine any discharge that's present, and collect a sample. Then, it'son to the microscope. music This is where you'll gather more specificinformationabout what's causing those vaginal symptoms. We'll show you how to prepare andexamine vaginal wet preps and how to do a whiff test. The results, combined with the patient's vaginal pH test, will aidthe diagnosis.
Under the microscope, you'll be looking for trichomonads, yeast, and the clue cells associated with bacterial vaginosis. We'll show you how to recognize them. music First, the microscope itself: This is a compoundlight microscope. It has several objective lenses on a rotating mount. For our purpose,one of these has to be a 10x low power objective, and one has to be a 40x for greater magnifiion.This flat part, under the objectives, is the stage. Under the stage is the condenser. Belowthat, at the base of the microscope, is the light source. There are two knobs that controlfocus; one for coarse adjustment and one for
fine adjustment. And these are the oculars,or eyepieces. We'll come back to the microscopea minute, but first, let's look at how to prepare wet mount slides. The complete vaginal wet mount involves botha saline prep and a potassium hyoxide, or KOH, prep. When the vaginal sample was collected,the swab was placeda test tube with approximately half a milliliter of saline. So, for the salineprep, you only have to take a op of the suspension and place it on a slide. Add acoverslip, being careful to avoid trapping air bubbles. Your saline slide is ready.Place a second op of the vaginal sample on another slide and add one op of 10 percentKOH. Sniff the preparation immediately, using
your hand to waft any odor toward your nose.This is the whiff test. Note if there's a fishy or amine odor. Then add a coverslip,avoiding air bubbles. Keepmind that you must work quickly to prepare and examine thewet mounts. That's because trichomonads may lose their characteristic motility within15 to 20 minutes. Before we move on now, though, let's lookat the cast of characters you may discover. These are normal squamous epithelial cellsfoundthe vagina. They're large, flat cells with a small nucleus and a large area of cytoplasm.Note that there is some granularitythe cytoplasm.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known asPolys, or PMNs. They may also be called white blood cells, or WBCs. These are small roundcells. Several lobes of the nucleus are visible within the surrounding cell cytoplasm. Findingmany PMNs may indie infection. Trichomonads are pearshaped protozoa whichmove by means of flagella. Trichomonads are similarsize to PMNs and are identifiedby their characteristic jerking movement. The actual flagella may be too thin and toorapidlymoving to be seen. A clue cell is a squamous epithelial cellcoated with enough small bacteria that at least 75 percent of the cell's border is obliterated.It may look as if someone has spread glue
over the cell and pressed itsand. Cluecells are associated with bacterial vaginosis, a conditionwhich the normal microbialflora of the vagina is disrupted. Yeast may be foundtwo forms. Pseudohyphaeare the long, tubular, branching forms. Budding yeast are paired yeast cells that resemblea shoe print. The larger part is the sole and the smaller bud is the heel of the shoe. The saline prep will allow you to see epithelialcells, PMNs, trichomonads, and clue cells. You can also see yeastsaline, but sometimesit's hidden by epithelial cells or by PMNs. Red blood cells, sperm, and bacteria can alsobe seen.
Why does my vagina smell
Oh sorry. What are you doingé Clone: I've been on a pineapple only diet all week and I still don't smell like a pineapple. What. Clone: I don't want my icky vagina to smell bad like they normally do. Clone: so I read online that I can make it smell like a pineapple! Oh my god I have to make a tutorial about this. It's time to talk about vaginas.
Your sausage wallet, punani, cookie, clam, toybox, cunt. Cunt is my favorite. Not just my favorite word for vaginas but like my favorite wordEnglish. It makes me really sad when I have casual vagina conversations with my friends and they don't know basic vagina owning 101. I wonder if theres a book called that. I'm going to look it up and if so its going to be on the screen right now. Just cause. I'm buying it. God I sound so pretentious. quot;I know more about vaginas then like, all of my friends.quot; Make a gif of that.
Alright, having a naturally bad smelling vagina isn't a thing. Vaginas are awesome. They smell awesome. And they taste awesome. Some people have faint scents, some people have strong scents. Do you want to bea tutorial about vaginasé When I tell people I don't wash my vagina they freak out. BUT HOW DO YOU KEEP IT CLEANé! Hey listen, vaginas clean themselves. They are a product of millions of years of evolution and all of that was before soap was invented.
There are actually lots and lots of little living things inside your vagina. Clone: AHHH! Don't freak out! There are tons of little living things all over and inside your body on the microbiological level and they're all working really hard to keep you healthy. So uh make their job a little easier and don't fuck it all up. Seriously if you're using soap or douchesyour vagina you are fucking up your natural cleaning process. Seriously though clean the dirty parts of your body. Your vagina isn't one of them. But having an unbalanced vagina is totally a thing. And if you use anything dirtyyour vagina like penises, toys, fingers you really gotta stay on top of it.
Now if your partners the one telling you to handle your shit downstairs tell them to go fuck a pineapple. But with that being said your vaginas a constant war between yeast and bacteria. If either of them wins, you're going to have a problem. That's not really how it works but I just love describing a vagina as that. IT'S A WAR ZONE. I don't know. Vaginas are badass y'all. Yeast infections and bacterial infections can both cause bad smells. BUUUUT, so called 'feminine freshness' products actually cause this.
They murder these tiny little organisms that keep you healthy and then make you smell bad. Let me say that again. DOUCHES AND SOAP MAKE YOU SMELL BAD. So you think you smell bad. You use a douche. You use a feminine soap. Then the smell goes away for a day and you're like, quot;Oh my god I smell like roses and mangoes!quot; Then the next day you smell bad again so you have to buy more of their products. It's a freakin vicious cycle. Chaching for them. Woof for you.
Human Physiology Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
gt;gt; Ketchum: In this tutorial we will focuson the functional anatomy of the male reproductive system. Let's begin by simply identifyingstructures that are importantthe male reproductive system. These include the vasdeferens, also called the ductus deferens, the penis, the testesâ€”note that only onetesticle is shownthis diagramâ€”the scrotum, the bulbourethral gland, the prostate gland,and finally, the seminal vesicle. You have to have a basic understanding of loionorderto understand function and how all these structures work together. We will begin with the testesâ€”themale gonad. This is a diagram of a longitudinal section through one testicle so you can nowsee what's inside. Notice that the majority
of the testicle is composed of seminiferoustubules. These tubules produce sperm via spermatogenesis, but howé Let's take a closer look. In orderto do this, we need to zoomon the seminiferous tubule and take a crosssection through thetubule. Imagine taking a garden hose and cutting ithalf; this would be similar to cuttingthe tubulehalf and looking at what's inside. The lumen of the seminiferous tubuleis lined by cells called Sertoli cells. These Sertoli cells are connected via tight junctions.Lining the outside of the Sertoli cells is a layer of smooth muscle. Outside of the Sertolicells are the Leydig cells; these are all the cells that are really important. In additionto these structures, you will need to be familiar
with the following compartments: the basalcompartment and the lumenal compartment. These compartments are basically talking about regionsof the crosssection. If we are talking about the basal compartment, we are talking aboutthe area that goes from the tight junction toward that smooth muscle. And if we are talkingabout the lumenal compartment, we are talking about the area that goes from the tight junctiontoward the lumen. Now that you are familiar with the structures, let's focus on theirfunctions. We begin with the Leydig cells, also called interstitial cells. The Leydigcells secrete testosterone. The Sertoli cells support sperm development, or what is referredto as spermatogenesis. The smooth muscle surrounding
the Sertoli cells allows for peristalsis.This process is important, as it will propel sperm through the seminiferous tubules. Wellthat's all fine and dandy that the Sertoli cells produce the sperm, but how do the spermget out of the seminiferous tubules, and out of the testesé This is our next goal. So hereare the sperm and the seminiferous tubules. The sperm has been produced by the Sertolicells and released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Those sperm then travel through thislittle region here called the Rete testes, and into the efferent ductules. This is thepoint and which the sperm exist the testes. From the efferent ductules the sperm enterthe epididymis, and will ultimately make their
way to the vas deferens. So that is the pathwaythe sperm are taking to get out of the testes. What propelled the sperm through all thosestructuresé Peristalsis. Now the sperm arethe vas deferens, righté The vas deferensconnects with the seminal vesicles to form the ejaculatory duct. At this point, the spermis mixed with fluid that came from the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory duct penetratesthrough the prostate gland to join the urethra. As such, the sperm wind upthe urethrawhich receives substances from the bulbourethral glands. Thus, both urine and sperm are inthe urethra. So that was just the pathway that the sperm take from the seminiferoustubules to the urethra. Now let's look more
closely at the accessory glands I mentionedearlier. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline fluid that contains fructose, enzymes, andprostaglandins. Remember, alkaline fluids are basic. The purpose of this alkaline fluidis to neutralize the acid that isthe female reproductive tract. The fructose is used for energy. Remembersperm have to swim, so they need energy for motility. The enzymesthe fluid facilitatesemen clotting. There are also prostaglandinsthis fluid; these are for motility andviability of the sperm. The prostate gland is another accessory gland. The prostate glandsecretes citrate, which is an energy source for sperm motility and enzymes that will breakdown the semen clot once it isthe female