Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
Yeast Infection Symptoms Vaginal Yeast Infection Cause and Symptoms
Vaginal Yeast Infection ï¿½ Cause and Symptoms Vaginal yeast infections, also called quot;Candidavaginal infections,quot; typically are caused by the Candida albicans fungus. During a lifetime, 75 percent of all womenare likely to have at least one vaginal Candida infection, and up to 45 percent have two ormore. Women tend to be more likely to get to vaginalyeast infections if their bodies are under stress from poor diet, lack of sleep, illness,or when they are pregnant or taking antibiotics. Women with immunesuppressing diseases suchas diabetes and HIV infection also are at
increased risk. ï¿½ Vaginal yeast infections are very common. They can bother you a lot, but they are simpleto treat. ï¿½ The symptoms of a yeast infection, suchas itching, can also be caused by other problems. If you have never had a yeast infection before,or if you are pregnant, see your . If you have had a yeast infection before anecognize the symptoms, you do not need to see a . How do I know if I have a yeast infectioné
Yeast infections can be very uncomfortable,but are usually not serious. Symptoms include the following: ï¿½ Itching and burningthe vagina andaround the vulva (the skin that surrounds your vagina) ï¿½ A white vaginal discharge that may looklike cottage cheese ï¿½ Pain during sexual intercourse ï¿½ Swelling of the vulva Symptoms
ï¿½ Common symptoms for all three infectionsinclude some kind of vaginal itching, redness, and a discharge. Below are all the yeast infection symptoms. ï¿½ Itching and burningthe vagina. ï¿½ Swelling, itching, and burning aroundthe skin surrounding the vagina and vulva, even at the lightest contact. ï¿½ White thick vaginal discharge. ï¿½ Pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse.
Burning sensation during and even after urination. ï¿½ Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Candida albicans is a widespread organismwith worldwide distribution. It is normally foundsmall amountsthevagina , the mouth, the digestive tract, and on the skin without causing disease or symptoms(approximately 25% of women without disease symptoms have this organism present). Yeast infections are common among dishwashersand people whose hands are oftenwater,
chilen who suck their thumbs or fingers,andpeople whose clothing retains body moisture. The diaper rash called candidal dermatitisis caused by yeast growththe folds of a baby's skin. Other yeast or fungal infections are: ï¿½ Balanitis ï¿½ Intertrigo ï¿½ Moniliasis