Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
Signs and symptoms of Ovarian Cancer You Should Know
Hi, Im Julie, on this occasion I will talk about warning signs of ovarian cancer hope you enjoy it Early Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer Every Woman Should Know. Ovarian cancer primarily affects women 50 years of age and older. It can occurseveral parts of the ovaries, which are loed on either side of the uterus. It may spread to the lining of the abdomen, bowel and bladder as well as to the lymph nodes, lungs and liver.
Such factors include being 50 or older, family history, never giving birth, starting menstruation at an early age, going through menopause after age 50, certain mediions, smoking, obesity and history of polycystic ovary synome (PCOS). It is more commonwhite women than AfricanAmericans. Moreover, the symptoms are very nonspecific and can indie a number of different conditions. This is why it has been dubbed as â€˜The Silent Killer'. Here are the early warning signs of ovarian cancer. 1, Pelvic or Abdominal Pain. The growth of a tumoran ovary causes pelvic or abdominal pain. The tumor exerts pressure on and around the surrounding areas, leading to intense pain.
In cases of ovarian cancer, the pain persists for weeks. If you are 50 years of age or older and experience painthe lower abdomen and pelvic area, consult a for a pelvic exam. Younger women should also see a when experiencing pelvic pain outside of a monthly menstrual cycle. It may be a sign of a benign ovarian cyst. Ovarian cancer is rare during a woman's childbearing years. 2, Uncomfortable or Painful Intercourse. Painful intercourse, medically known as dyspareunia, is another early indiion of ovarian cancer. The presence of a tumoror around the area surrounding an ovary can make intercourse extremely painful. There may even be mild vaginal bleeding after the intercourse.
Usually, this kind of discomfort is new for a woman. Women who are postmenopausal and experience painful intercourse must get checked by a . Apart from ovarian cancer, it may indie cervical cancer or an infection or sexually transmitted disease (STD). 3, Abdominal Bloating or Swelling. General discomfortthe lower abdomen may also indie that something is wrong with your ovaries. Symptoms like bloating, expansion of your belly, gas, indigestion, heartburn and nausea are common. In a 2008 study publishedBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, most of the women suffering from ovarian cancer complained about persistent abdominal distension and fluctuating distension or
discomfort, which they frequently called bloating. If you are 50 years of age or older, your clothes suddenly start feeling tighter around your waist and hips and it lasts for more than a couple of weeks, you need to see a . 4, Frequent or Urgent Need to Urinate. Sudden changesurinary habits can also be a symptom of ovarian cancer. There may be changesthe frequency of urination, loss of bladder control (incontinence) or spotting blood with urine. Urinary changes most likely originate due to the pressure from the tumor or from fluidthe abdomen prompted by the presence of the tumor. A 2004 study by Olmsted Medical Center and Mayo analyzed the symptoms of 107 ovarian cancer patients. Abdominal pain and urinary urgency were the most common symptomswomen who had Stage I and II ovarian cancer.
For many women, these changes may also be a sign of weak pelvic floor muscles or a urinary tract infection. No matter what the reason, it is always best to consult a . 5, Difficulty Eating or Getting Full Quickly. If you are a good eater and suddenly notice a loss of apite or you are getting full after eating just a few bites of food, this is not a good sign. It can indie a bigger health issue, including ovarian cancer. Furthermore, losing your characteristic apite will resultweight loss and constant fatigue. The growing tumoran ovary even impacts the digestion process as there is not much room for food. Moreover, any kind of cancer impacts metabolism,
10 SECRET VAGINA FACTS
What bleeds every month without dying, produces pleasure, and canpush out entire human beingsé It's the one, the only, vagina. Oh hi babes, here areten little known facts about the almighty vagina. The vagina is like a sock. You can put feetit! I'm just kidding, don'tput feetit, unless.
Anyway, the vagina is a pathway of muscles that's flat when there's nothingit. Also like a sock, there's a top that stops things from getting lost. Here's my PlayDoh vagina. At the top of the vagina is the cervix which looks like a little doughnut and has a tiny little hole called the os.
Not a whole lot can get through that hole. Sperm can get in, blood canget out, or your period. The hole can get big to let fetuses out but other than that, it's pretty solid. Vagina is Latin forsheath or sword holder. Can you guess whatsword it's referring toé Just like the penis,vaginas get erections too! When you're aroused, blood rushes down
to all your happy bits and your genitals and the cervix and the uterus actually lift up a little bit,usually a couple inches. This causes the vagina to lengthen and your vagina can expand up to 200 percent when you're turned on. The power of the horny, people. You may have heard that the hymen needs
to be broken but that's not true. The hymen, or vaginalcorona is a thin membrane that's leftover from when the vagina is being formed before you're born. That membrane sits nearthe opening of the vagina and it doesn't pop, break,tear, and it should not bleed. They're also really fun because they comeall kinds of shapes and configurations!
Vaginas share properties with sharks. When you're turned on, tiny glands produce a few ops of natural lubriion. That lubriion containsa substance called squalene which is also foundshark livers. That's right, if you want, itcan be shark week every week. The gspot is actuallythe internal clitoris. The gspot sits about twoinches inside the vagina