Bacterialvaginosis is a disease that's caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that's called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes
around the term infection because the thing that's interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it's a bacteriathat's naturally foundthe vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interestingbecause it doesn't cause
any problems until there'stoo much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having newor multiple sex partners.
And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could bethe case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that's on antibiotics which will then attackthe bacteria that exists within the vagina andallow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis.
So we've touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna aw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we'retalking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. Soorder to understandthe pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria
that existsthe vagina. So I'll aw out someGardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I'll put this upour key. This is the symbol forGardnerella vaginalis. And I'll aw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteriathat existthis sample. So if you really look at it here,
Delivery of Placental expulsion tutorial The third stage of labour afterbirth
This is Fawzi academythis tutorial,We will talk about Placental expulsion, The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus, To the uterine wall, To allow nutrient uptake, Waste elimination, And gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, Fight against internal infection,And produce hormones to support pregnancy. Placental expulsion is called, The third stage of labor also called afterbirth, Occurs when the placenta comes out of the birth canal, AND can be managed actively,Or passively which means, Allowing the placenta to be expelled without
medical assistance.It begins as a physiological separation from the wall of the uterus. The placenta is usually expelled within 15â€“30 minutes of the baby being born.Maternal blood loss is limited by contraction of the uterus,Following birth of the placenta. Normal blood loss is less than 600 mL. Active management routinely involves,Clamping of the umbilical cord, Often within seconds or minutes of birth. Uterine contraction assistsdelivering the placenta,And can be induced with mediion, Controlled cord traction consists of pulling on the umbilical cord,While applying counter pressure to help deliver the placenta.It may be uncomfortable for the mother.Manual placenta removal from the uterus by hand. It is usually carried out under anaesthesia, If the placenta fails to deliver30 minutes,
A hand is inserted through the vagina into the uterine cavity,And the placenta is detached from the uterine wall,And indies the presence of placenta accreta.A retained placenta is a placenta that doesn't undergo expulsion,Within a normal time limit. Risks of retained placenta include hemorrhage and infection. Hope this information is helpful.Thank you for watching Fawzi academy, Please subscribe and share this tutorial.