Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
What Kind of Discharge Do You Have During Pregnancy
What kind of discharge do you have duringpregnancyé It's like a waterfall. Excuse meé Vaginal discharge is normal for all women,and it just gets worse during pregnancy. It's embarrassing. So wear absorbent pads so it doesn't affectyour clothes. You can use the same pads you do when you are having your period. I noticed spotting around the time I conceived,though it wasn't nearly as much as a period.
And you probably saw white discharge afteryou conceived. I was worried it might be an STD. If you think you have an STD, you need toget treated now so that it doesn't adversely affect the baby. There are horrifying Googleimages of birth defects caused by sexually transmitted diseases. I'm already paranoid about the baby. I don'teven want to dye my hair, paint my nails or do anything else. Brown discharge sometimes happens, especiallyafter minor vaginal tears after sex. However,
if you see bright red blood, you need to seea . Because I'm miscarrying. Or the placenta is separating, or you haveplacenta previa. Or you'relabor, early or not. What if it is another color like yellow orgreené You might have a yeast infection or STD. Pregnantwomen, especially those with high blood sugar, are at risk of horrible yeast infections. And what if it is clearé
It might be normal discharge, or you mightbe losing amniotic fluid. Ifdoubt, you need to get tested. Very much so. What if it is a big globé Then you might have lost the mucus plug, andthen you need to see the because it's a sign of labor. How do you know all thisé Believe me, I have seen it all.
Signs And Symptoms Of Pregnancy
Signs And Symptoms Of Pregnancy Approximately 70% of expectant mothers experiencesome symptoms of pregnancy during the first trimester. Here is a list of some early signsor symptoms of pregnancy. quot; Missed period Breast tenderness Exhaustion, tiredness Nausea and vomiting Mood swings and headaches. Strange food cravings, increased salivation Frequent urination andor increasedvaginal discharge quot;