Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
(gentle music) Laci Oh hi, everyone! Throughout the last ten years I've had so many vaginal issues that I'm basically a certified hacker now. (ding) Before I get started sharingsome ancient remedies and twenty first century lifesavers
just a little reminder. I'm gonna be talking aboutvaginal infections and stuff and sometimes the symptoms ofthose are actually symptoms of things that are much more serious. So, yay, love your vagina and go to the when you need to. First step, when yeast getsa little outta control. Why yes, I am about to suggest
that you put garlicyour vagina. I know it sounds weird butit seriously works so well. Just pusha whole clove. Don't puncture it or will burn and change that baby every twelve hours. Usually within three to five days my yeast infections are gone. Yeah, it can leave a little bit of a smell
but who doesn't like garlic breadé The vagina's a pocket so it's not gonna get lost but if you're worried, you can tie some floss to it so that you can easily pull it out. For pain relief, I put plain yogurt twith live active cultures into the fingers of a latexglove and then freeze it.
Look for yogurt with theleast amount of sugar that you can find 'cause yeast loves sugar and when you pull it outof the freezer you'll have these delightful,(mumbling) yogurt tampons. Pop oneovernight witha pad to ch the leakage. Next up, UTIs. I know, I know you've heardit before but seriously, hyation is so freaking important.
Try to be inking alittle water all day long. Second, secret weapon is DMannose. You can get this at a supplement store and I take two capsules three times a day for five days whileinking lots of water. Continue taking it a few days even after the symptoms have gone. I've also had good results withprobiotics for bladder pain
Why Your Boobs Hurt Before Your Period
Ow. Am I right, ladiesé Hello everyone! Welcome to another episodeof DNews. Amy here with you guys and gals today, and you gals specifically might haveexperienced sore breaststhe days leading up to your period. Premenstrual breast tenderness, properly calledquot;cyclical mastalgia,quot; or quot;cyclical mastodynia,â€� is extremely common with severity varyingbetween women. Some might feel a dull ache while others may experience stabbing or shootingpains. It all comes down to fluctuating hormones.Estrogen levels begin to risethe first
half of a menstrual cycle, causing the breastducts to enlarge. Once an egg is released from the ovary, the body produces progesteroneto help thicken the uterine lininganticipation of that egg being fertilized and implantedâ€” pregnancy. Progesterone also causes the milk glandsthe breasts to swell. It'sthe rising level of those two hormones that lead to breast soreness. But sore breasts could also be an indiorof fibrocystic breast disease, a condition that leads to large, noncancerous lumps appearingin the breast tissue before menstruation. They move when pushed but typically disappearonce menstruation begins.
The exact timing of the hormone levels changingvaries for each woman as do specific symptoms, thoughmost cases symptoms typically peakjust before menstruation. And it's more than just tenderness and soreness. Breasttissue at this pointa woman's cycle may become denser and have a bumpy, cobblestonelikefeeling, especiallythe outer areas of the breast. There may be a general lingeringdull pain and an overall sense of fullness leaving the breasts feeling heavy. Premenstrual breast soreness could be worseif you've just started taking hormonal birth control, like the pill. Breast soreness andenlargement is itself a side effect of the
pill along with weight gain. And of course, sore breasts is just one ofa wide array of premenstrual symptoms women are all too familiar with. Emotional symptomslike mood changes, physical symptoms like abdominal or even full body bloating, andcognitive symptoms like exhaustion. Premenstrual breast soreness affects roughly70% of women during their lifetime with up to about a third of women experiencing moderateto severe pain. And it's most common for women between the ages of 30 and 50. And unfortunately, there's not much to doabout it besides wait. But luckily, breast
soreness typically goes away as soon as yourperiod starts, or at least within a couple of days. So, ladies, any tips and tricks to share ondealing with premenstrual breast painé Let us knowthe comments below or you canch me on Twitter as @astVintageSpace. And don't forget to subscribe for more DNewsevery day of the week.