music It's a typical day. A patient has noticedsome itching, or maybe an unpleasant vaginal odor. During her exam, the ian willcheck vaginal pH, examine any discharge that's present, and collect a sample. Then, it'son to the microscope. music This is where you'll gather more specificinformationabout what's causing those vaginal symptoms. We'll show you how to prepare andexamine vaginal wet preps and how to do a whiff test. The results, combined with the patient's vaginal pH test, will aidthe diagnosis.
Under the microscope, you'll be looking for trichomonads, yeast, and the clue cells associated with bacterial vaginosis. We'll show you how to recognize them. music First, the microscope itself: This is a compoundlight microscope. It has several objective lenses on a rotating mount. For our purpose,one of these has to be a 10x low power objective, and one has to be a 40x for greater magnifiion.This flat part, under the objectives, is the stage. Under the stage is the condenser. Belowthat, at the base of the microscope, is the light source. There are two knobs that controlfocus; one for coarse adjustment and one for
fine adjustment. And these are the oculars,or eyepieces. We'll come back to the microscopea minute, but first, let's look at how to prepare wet mount slides. The complete vaginal wet mount involves botha saline prep and a potassium hyoxide, or KOH, prep. When the vaginal sample was collected,the swab was placeda test tube with approximately half a milliliter of saline. So, for the salineprep, you only have to take a op of the suspension and place it on a slide. Add acoverslip, being careful to avoid trapping air bubbles. Your saline slide is ready.Place a second op of the vaginal sample on another slide and add one op of 10 percentKOH. Sniff the preparation immediately, using
your hand to waft any odor toward your nose.This is the whiff test. Note if there's a fishy or amine odor. Then add a coverslip,avoiding air bubbles. Keepmind that you must work quickly to prepare and examine thewet mounts. That's because trichomonads may lose their characteristic motility within15 to 20 minutes. Before we move on now, though, let's lookat the cast of characters you may discover. These are normal squamous epithelial cellsfoundthe vagina. They're large, flat cells with a small nucleus and a large area of cytoplasm.Note that there is some granularitythe cytoplasm.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known asPolys, or PMNs. They may also be called white blood cells, or WBCs. These are small roundcells. Several lobes of the nucleus are visible within the surrounding cell cytoplasm. Findingmany PMNs may indie infection. Trichomonads are pearshaped protozoa whichmove by means of flagella. Trichomonads are similarsize to PMNs and are identifiedby their characteristic jerking movement. The actual flagella may be too thin and toorapidlymoving to be seen. A clue cell is a squamous epithelial cellcoated with enough small bacteria that at least 75 percent of the cell's border is obliterated.It may look as if someone has spread glue
over the cell and pressed itsand. Cluecells are associated with bacterial vaginosis, a conditionwhich the normal microbialflora of the vagina is disrupted. Yeast may be foundtwo forms. Pseudohyphaeare the long, tubular, branching forms. Budding yeast are paired yeast cells that resemblea shoe print. The larger part is the sole and the smaller bud is the heel of the shoe. The saline prep will allow you to see epithelialcells, PMNs, trichomonads, and clue cells. You can also see yeastsaline, but sometimesit's hidden by epithelial cells or by PMNs. Red blood cells, sperm, and bacteria can alsobe seen.
Body Odor Changes During Menopause
What on Earth is going on with the body odorchanges during menopauseé Like many other female issues, it can be blamedon hormones. With my period over, no, I can't. Menopause is a lack of specific hormones,so yes, it is. Are you mad, or is that a bad hot flashé Close enough. What specifically is causingthese body odor changesé For some women, you get an increased riskof yeast infections. That would explain a sour or fishy odor.
This is more like an old man's smell. Your body has shifted gears and now has lessestrogen. That affects your body's chemistry. While I am getting old, I'm not turninginto a guy. What I meant is that you may sense the changesbecause of the decreased estrogen levels. I heard it might be a nutritional deficit. A lack of zinc can cause bad body odor. Oryou just need aluminum chlorohyate. I've never heard of that. Can I get it bycooking everythingaluminum foilé Aluminum chlorohyate is a common compoundin underarm deodorant.
What else could be causing ité When you have hot flashes, you're probablysweating, too. The problem may simply be extra BO solved by deodorant and frequent bathing. Now you're talking to me like I'm a teenagedboy. The odor is sometimes caused by changes invaginal pH. That you'd want to consult with an OBGYN about. I think there are a lot of over the countersolutions for that. Sometimes women develop urine leakage withmiddle age. Maybe the odor you're picking
up is due to that. A middle aged woman shouldn't have the sameproblems as a toddler. Let's just say this is a problem for theages. Or it is a problem associated with gettingolder. And that's assuming it isn't diabetes or yourthyroid or OK, I'll talk to the .
What vaginal changes happen during menopause Can Kegel exercises help
While every woman is different every woman, after menopause, will experience vaginalchanges. For some women that's a big problem, for others it may not beas big a problem but because there is no longer estrogenavailable the vagina becomes ier, it shrinks, and that blood flow to the pelvischanges,
creating a differencemaybe how long it takes her to become aroused. We talk about hot flashes, night sweats. with menopause everybody woman knowsthat and every woman also knows that usually those go awaya couple of years. This particular change after menopause gets worse over the years, so it's an important thing to adess,my opinion, adess early on so that it doesn't get to a point whereit's
even more difficult to treat. What Kegel exercises help with the tonethe vagina. It also can help with, again, that blood flow that's important forbringing moisture to the vagina. it doesn'ttotally change the of picture yness or thephysiological changes that are going on after menopause but it's very helpfulexercising that muscle.