Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
Do Antibiotics Cause Yeast Infections
Good day, Eric Bakker, naturopath with anotherfrequently asked question. Do antibiotics cause yeast infectionsé This is a question that many people ask. Manypeople do take antibiotics, unfortunately, andmy opinion, antibiotic ugs are oneof the number one causes of chronic yeast infections. Particularly, the prolonged andinappropriate and excessive use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotics are prescribed on quite a largeand wide scale to kill diseasecausing bacteria, but unfortunately, they also kill healthy,normal, flora throughout the body and they
can actually encourage yeast infections inmany people. So antibiotics are implied and,my mind, would be one of the primecauses of yeast infections and recurring chronic yeast infectionsmany patients. One factor that many people don't realizeis did you know that most antibiotic ugs are actually themselves developed from chemicalsfoundfungi species. So fungi actually create certain chemicals which kill bacteriaaround them. So by using certain chemicals and creating ugs from them, we can effectivelykill bacteria yet allow the yeast to proliferate. So this is one reason why antibiotics areso effective at killing bacteria but allowing
their own species to thrive. So it's a littleknown fact. Another little known fact which you may notbe aware of is the use of antibioticscommercial meat; poultry for example, chickens, and commercialchickens contain many different types of antibiotics. When you see how poultry are kept crammedin cages, it's not hard to see why they give them antibiotics to prevent diseases. So ifyou're eating commercial poultry, I recommend you go to Wikipedia and look up antibioticsin chicken or poultry. You might be quite surprised what you find. So, yes they are. They're certainly impliedin the development and progression of a yeast
infection. In fact, William Cook wroteextensively about antibioticshis book, The Yeast Infection. It's a good book andwell worth the read for you. So avoiding antibiotic ugs is one step inthe right direction if you want to avoid yeast infections and particularly if you want topermanently cure your yeast infection. In my book, Candida Crusher, I've writtenabout the 11 main causes of yeast infections, and antibiotic ugs, unfortunately, are ontop of the list. So I do hope that answers your question. Thank you.