Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
Yeast Infections Boys Town Pediatrics
Occasionally diaper rashes can become infectedwith yeast. Yeast just lives on the skingeneral and it likes warm moist environmentsthat are dark to start growing. So if you've had a diaper rash that's been there forthree days, is one clue. If it has kind of a beefy red appearance and especially if thereare little red dots that we call satellite lesions steredthe area, those may besigns of yeast infections. It doesn't happen as frequently if you'rechanging the diapers frequently but if you have a diaper rash that is already there andyou leave a diaper on for a long time it is more likely it is going to turn into a yeastinfection.
If the yeast infection goes on and on it caninvolve more of a widespread area, it can break down the skin, that skin can then becomeinfected with bacteria on top of the yeast and just become more difficult to treat andmore painful for your baby. You can comeand be seen with those andyou can also try some home treatments with overthecounter medicine like Clotrimazolewhich is available over the counter, usuallythe athlete's foot section. It's fineto putthat diaper area. So you are going to want to put your mediedointment on first and then put your barrier ointment on top of that, your roleum jelly, your Desitin, your Boueaux's, your A
and D, whichever, andgeneral just stayaway from the powders. We don't want to use the cornstarch, the talcum powers, thebaby powders, just your creams and ointments. If it is not responding to that mediionor if it looks like there may be something else going on make sure to comeand seeyour . The main thing is try to keep a y diaperon as frequent as possible so it doesn't mean at the first sign of pee you have tochange but try to avoid those times with prolonged episodes of sittinga wet diaper. Those episodes are the settings where the fungus thrives. When you start to see a littlebit of a rash go ahead and start using diaper
ointment and just use thick amounts of it.If your use a thin amount it just isn't going to work as effectively.
How To Treat DiaperYeast Rash
Hey everyone, I am here today to do a tutorial for you on how to treat a diaper rash. I will be covering two types of diaper rashes. The inevitable regular diaper rash that almost every baby will get at some point, and the eaded yeast diaper rash. Emilia is six months old now,
and I would say up until around the four and a half month mark, I was definitely a Pamper's mommy. Around that time, I started getting really concerned on how often she was getting diaper rashes, and if there wasn't a diaper rash, there was usually some sort of red irritation.
So I started to do research and I was horrified at how many chemicals arebaby products. That is the time that I discovered The Honest Company. The key to preventing and treating a diaperrash is to create a barrier. Before we used The Honest Company,
I would use Desitin and baby powder at every diaper change. Since we have switched brands, now I use The Honest Company's Organic HealingBalm. They do have a diaper rash cream but I prefer the Organic Healing Balm because it serves multiple purposes. We use it for the diaper changes,
cuts, scratches, I use it, it's awesome. I highly recommened it. This is a shot of it. It is pH balanced, hypoallerginic, and plantbased. I cannot say enough good things about this company. I will have a link down below so you can check it out
if it's something that you're interested in. Which brings us to the eaded yeast diaper rash!!! Luckily, my mother had some tips for me so it saved me a trip to the pediatrician. You can go to any ugstore or pharmacy, and you are looking for an antifungal cream.