Fungal Infections and Antifungal Treatments Ringworm Candida Aspergillus Histoplasmosis
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through Fungi. This is the 1st tutorialmy playlist covering all of Microbiologyfor the USMLE Step 1 Medical Board Exam. We are going to Opportunistic Mycoses,Systemic Mycoses, Superficial Fungal infections and Antifungal mediions. This info isn't very high yield for theexam, but I want to give us a little bit of a foundation to build on. Fungi are a groupof eukaryotic organisms that present as either
a unicellular organism (Yeast) or a multicellularorganism (Mold). They are nearly everywherenature, but only a small percentage cancause diseasehumans. Most of the infections that occur are asymptomatic or so mild thatthat are not detected. Many of the pathogenic Fungi are dimorphic, meaning that they arepresentthe form of a moldcolder temperatures and presentthe form of yeast at warmertemperatures (such as body temperature after infecting a human). A way to remember thisis the mnemonic â€œMoldthe Cold, Yeastthe Heat.â€� Fungi have a complex reproductivelife cycle that includes formation of Spores which can livethe environmenta vegetativestate. Humans usually contract fungal infections
by acquiring these spores from environmentalsources such as soil. Most fungal infections do not have a person to person spread. Mold form hyphae while Yeast form buddingyeast and psuedohyphae. Both hyphae and Psuedohyphae are branching filamentous vegetative structuresof fungi and each form spores. True hyphae have septae or cell walls between sectionswhile psuedohyphae are formed by budding without a true cell wallseptae between sections. The high yield fungal infections can primarilybe broken down into two groups, Systemic and Opportunistic. Fungithe systemic egoryhave a higher virulence and can infect health
individuals. While these fungi can infectimmunocoment individuals the infections are usually mild and localized to the respiratorysystem. In immunocompromised individuals the infections can more commonly spread from thelungs and disseminate to the rest of the body. Systemic fungi are foundspecific geographicregions so when a question stem mentions a specific state that should be a buzzword toconsider these fungi. Opportunistic Fungi are lower virulence and have to â€œwait forthe right opportunityâ€� to infect a host. Opportunistic infections usually only occurin immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDs, transplanted organs or cancer.For both systemic and Opportunistic Mycoses
infections the route of infections is mostoften inhalation of a spore from an environmental source. This first leads to a respiratoryinfection, and then given the right circumstances the infection may then spread to other partsof the body. Candida is the exception as it is normal skin flora. We all have Candidapresent on our skin and it only causes a problem when factors lead to an overgrowth of thefungi. The highest yield systemic mycoses are histoplasmosis,blastomycosis Coccidioidomycosis. The highest yield Opportunistic Mycoses are Candida, aspergillus,cryptococcus, mucormycosis Pneumocystis Jiirovecii.
For the most part, these different fungalinfections cannot be differentiated based only on the signs and symptoms. Most of thefungi present like pneumonia with vague flu like symptoms. Therefore, the different fungiare primarily differentiated based on histologic examination of the sputum, biopsy or swab.A stain such as PAS or silver stain is usually needed to visualize the fungi. You shouldbe able to identify the histology of each fungus via a pictures and a text descriptionof the findings as you can be presented with eitherthe question. Coccidioidomycosis is one of the SystemicMycoses. I give it a high yield rating of
Anti Fungal Shampoo
Hey guys, today I want to share with all of you an amazing hair product that I've been using on my hair for awhile now. And the product I'm talking about is this antifungal shampoo and conditioner. The amazing
thing about this product is that it can be used for many, many things, not just fungus, bacteria, but also scalp pimples which is one of the things that I suffer from. So, let me start off by first of all mentioning the benefits of this product, so in
other words, who exactly is a good candidate for thisé First of all, before I even mention who is a good candidate, I do want to mention that I personally think this product is great for everyone. It doesn't matter if you suffer from scalp fungus, bacteria, scalp pimples. I
recommend this product, and the reason why I think that is because when I first started using this product, I was a little bit hesitant. I was like, okay what I am going do. Once I heal my scalp pimples do I throw it awayé Do I stop using ité Absolutely not.
Although this product is going to help you heal any issues you might have related to fungus and bacteria, I recommend that you continue using it because, one of the things that I notice when I use this product is that it
leaves my hair extremely silky and soft. I really do not know which one of them is the one that does that to my hair, but if I had to guess I would say it's the conditioner, because as soon as I apply this conditioner on my