music It's a typical day. A patient has noticedsome itching, or maybe an unpleasant vaginal odor. During her exam, the ian willcheck vaginal pH, examine any discharge that's present, and collect a sample. Then, it'son to the microscope. music This is where you'll gather more specificinformationabout what's causing those vaginal symptoms. We'll show you how to prepare andexamine vaginal wet preps and how to do a whiff test. The results, combined with the patient's vaginal pH test, will aidthe diagnosis.
Under the microscope, you'll be looking for trichomonads, yeast, and the clue cells associated with bacterial vaginosis. We'll show you how to recognize them. music First, the microscope itself: This is a compoundlight microscope. It has several objective lenses on a rotating mount. For our purpose,one of these has to be a 10x low power objective, and one has to be a 40x for greater magnifiion.This flat part, under the objectives, is the stage. Under the stage is the condenser. Belowthat, at the base of the microscope, is the light source. There are two knobs that controlfocus; one for coarse adjustment and one for
fine adjustment. And these are the oculars,or eyepieces. We'll come back to the microscopea minute, but first, let's look at how to prepare wet mount slides. The complete vaginal wet mount involves botha saline prep and a potassium hyoxide, or KOH, prep. When the vaginal sample was collected,the swab was placeda test tube with approximately half a milliliter of saline. So, for the salineprep, you only have to take a op of the suspension and place it on a slide. Add acoverslip, being careful to avoid trapping air bubbles. Your saline slide is ready.Place a second op of the vaginal sample on another slide and add one op of 10 percentKOH. Sniff the preparation immediately, using
your hand to waft any odor toward your nose.This is the whiff test. Note if there's a fishy or amine odor. Then add a coverslip,avoiding air bubbles. Keepmind that you must work quickly to prepare and examine thewet mounts. That's because trichomonads may lose their characteristic motility within15 to 20 minutes. Before we move on now, though, let's lookat the cast of characters you may discover. These are normal squamous epithelial cellsfoundthe vagina. They're large, flat cells with a small nucleus and a large area of cytoplasm.Note that there is some granularitythe cytoplasm.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known asPolys, or PMNs. They may also be called white blood cells, or WBCs. These are small roundcells. Several lobes of the nucleus are visible within the surrounding cell cytoplasm. Findingmany PMNs may indie infection. Trichomonads are pearshaped protozoa whichmove by means of flagella. Trichomonads are similarsize to PMNs and are identifiedby their characteristic jerking movement. The actual flagella may be too thin and toorapidlymoving to be seen. A clue cell is a squamous epithelial cellcoated with enough small bacteria that at least 75 percent of the cell's border is obliterated.It may look as if someone has spread glue
over the cell and pressed itsand. Cluecells are associated with bacterial vaginosis, a conditionwhich the normal microbialflora of the vagina is disrupted. Yeast may be foundtwo forms. Pseudohyphaeare the long, tubular, branching forms. Budding yeast are paired yeast cells that resemblea shoe print. The larger part is the sole and the smaller bud is the heel of the shoe. The saline prep will allow you to see epithelialcells, PMNs, trichomonads, and clue cells. You can also see yeastsaline, but sometimesit's hidden by epithelial cells or by PMNs. Red blood cells, sperm, and bacteria can alsobe seen.
(gentle music) Laci Oh hi, everyone! Throughout the last ten years I've had so many vaginal issues that I'm basically a certified hacker now. (ding) Before I get started sharingsome ancient remedies and twenty first century lifesavers
just a little reminder. I'm gonna be talking aboutvaginal infections and stuff and sometimes the symptoms ofthose are actually symptoms of things that are much more serious. So, yay, love your vagina and go to the when you need to. First step, when yeast getsa little outta control. Why yes, I am about to suggest
that you put garlicyour vagina. I know it sounds weird butit seriously works so well. Just pusha whole clove. Don't puncture it or will burn and change that baby every twelve hours. Usually within three to five days my yeast infections are gone. Yeah, it can leave a little bit of a smell
but who doesn't like garlic breadé The vagina's a pocket so it's not gonna get lost but if you're worried, you can tie some floss to it so that you can easily pull it out. For pain relief, I put plain yogurt twith live active cultures into the fingers of a latexglove and then freeze it.
Look for yogurt with theleast amount of sugar that you can find 'cause yeast loves sugar and when you pull it outof the freezer you'll have these delightful,(mumbling) yogurt tampons. Pop oneovernight witha pad to ch the leakage. Next up, UTIs. I know, I know you've heardit before but seriously, hyation is so freaking important.
Try to be inking alittle water all day long. Second, secret weapon is DMannose. You can get this at a supplement store and I take two capsules three times a day for five days whileinking lots of water. Continue taking it a few days even after the symptoms have gone. I've also had good results withprobiotics for bladder pain
What Is The Difference Between A Yeast Infection And An STD
Good day, Eric Bakker, naturopath, authorof Candida Crusher with another frequently asked question. What is the difference between a yeast infectionand an STDé An STD is a sexually transmitted disease.Well, there are quite a few differences between both of these problems. An STD is generallya disease transmitted between two people through sexual contact: oral sex, anal sex, straightsex, whatever sex you want to call it. Sometimesrare cases, STDs can be transferred throughneedle sharing, althoughmore rare situations. Yeast infections can be sexually transmitted.Don't ever doubt that. But everybody will
containtheir bodies,the digestivesystem, femalesthe vaginal area they will have yeast to some degree. And it's when theseyeast get out of hand that you're going to get an infection. Particularly, when theyproliferate or if they're exacerbated through antibiotic use, which is a very common causeof yeast infections, is taking antibiotics. So there is a difference between a yeast infectionand an STD, but STDs are not yeast infections, generally,terms of only being transmittedsexually, where sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted sexually like Chlamydia andGonorrhea and Syphilis. These diseases are transmitted through the sexual route.
You can read a lot more about the differenttypes of STDsmy book. In fact, I've awn you a big diagram showing you all the differentsexually transmitted diseases, the discharge, the irritation, whether they itch, what odorsthey have, and I've compared those with a yeast infection to give you a good comparison. A very common thing that many women have isbacterial vaginosis, which they confuse for a yeast infection. So it's good for you toknow the difference between a yeast infection and Chlamydia, for example, or Gonorrhea becausethese diseases do resurface from time and time again.
Is there a differenceé Yes, there is a differencebetween them both. But a yeast infection can be transmitted sexually, but is not a sexuallytransmitted disease per se. So I hope that answers your question. Thankyou.