Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella
Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorialmy playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,
allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover thata later tutorialthe GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered laterits own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap
smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a op of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a op of 1020% KOH (Potassium hyoxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora â€œWhiff Test.â€� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.
This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increasethe growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested
by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteriathis infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal
squamous epithelial cell coveredmany adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few stered lactobacill to squamous cells that are coveredthousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse
How to Cure an Ear Infection Fast
Hey guys, Axe here, of FunctionalMedicine and Nutritionist. Today, I'm going to share with you how to cure an ear infectionfast. I know ear infections, whether it be adults or more commonlychilen, are somethingthat. We don't want chilen living with that pain,dealing with that issue, but we also want to be all naturalthat treatment and reallyhelp support their bodyhealingthe correct way. There are four things you cando to help heal an ear infection fast, and there are four terrific home remedies thatyou want to consider. The first thing you want to do, and you wantto do internallythe ear, is doing garlic
oil. You can buy garlic oil at almost anyhealth food store. Garlic actually has natural antiviral properties, and the majority ofthe time when a child has an ear infection, it is a virus, not usually a bacteria. This is why antibiotics are completely ineffectiveagainst ear infections. In fact, if you go to your primary care physician and they recommendan antibiotic for an ear infection, I would consider if you should use that ornot. Because they really probably don't know whatthey're doing, unfortunately, because most ear infections are viral. Again, garlic oil,a few opsthe ear is an effective treatment.
The second thing you want to be doing is takingsomething called tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca, not putting thatthe earbut rubbing it all around the outside of the ear. Tea tree oil has powerful antisepticproperties. It's been used for huneds of years for the natural treatments of woundsand infections. Again, I would do tea tree oil a few ops.You can mix it with a little coconut oil as well. Rub it all over the ear and all aroundthe ear area. Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca, is a very, very effective naturaltreatment. The third treatment is actually chiropracticcare. Chiropractic has been shown to be very,
very effectivethe treatment of ear infections.What can happen is the spine can misalignthe upper neck, and that can actually affectthe way the body heals and those nerve signals getting from the brain to that area and justaffect the overall healing. We've actually seen. Bring your child toa wellness or a pediatric chiropractor. They can do a very light manual adjustment to thechild. Often sometimes they even just do some light tapping or use an instrument. That canactually heal an ear infection quickly as well. Last but not least, you've got to get to theroot cause of what is causing the ear infection
the first place. One of the most commonthings is food sensitivities. If your child is allergic to gluten, to certain things likelactose or caseindairy, to nuts, to citrus, to a load of things, that is actually oneof the biggest causes of ear infection today. What I would consider doing is getting yourchild what's called an I.G.G. food sensitivity test and actually getting them tested forfood allergies, food sensitivities, or food intolerances. That's one of the big thingsto look for. You can get those tests done. They're fairlyinexpensive. Or, if you don't want to do that, then just really watch and listen to theirbody. Notice if they're consuming certain
types of conventional cow's milk or glutenthat can cause the ear infections. But justgeneral for almost everybody outthere, if your child is getting ear infections, you should get them off gluten and off conventionalcow's milk. If they want to do a little bit of goat's milk yogurt, or something like that,or goat's cheese, most kids do fine with that form of dairy. Again, the conventional cow's milk, the glutenin grain products, those are probably the two biggest culprits when it comes to causingear infections. Again, remember those four things if you wantto help remedy your child's ear infections.